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languages:saterfrisian_in_germany

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Sater Frisian in Germany

Language designations:

  • In the language itself: Saterfriesisch, native: Seeltersk 1)
  • ISO 639-3 standard: stq 2)

Language vitality according to:

Linguistic aspects:

  • Classification: Indo-European → Germanic. For more information, see sate1242 at Glottolog
  • Script: Latin

Language standardization

The American linguist Marron Fort collected words while doing linguistic research over a span of 20 years in Saterland.3) With this collection, he created the Sater Frisian Dictionary and by that a coherent orthography. With help of this dictionary, he translated the New Testament into Sater Frisian. 4) West-Frisian Pyt Kramer has also contributed to the standardization of Sater Frisian, with the Seelter Woudebouk (Seelter Dicionary) from Sater Frisian to West Frisian or German, published in 1961, the Näi Seelter Woudebouk, A-E (New Sater Frisian Dictionary, A-E) in 1992, and the Kuute Seelter Sproakleere (Short Grammar of Sater Frisian) published in 1996.

Demographics

Language Area

Saterfrisian or Seeltersk as it is called by its speakers is nowadays spoken in four villages near Cloppenburg in Lower Saxony: Struecklingen (Strukelje), Ramsloh (Roomelse) and Scharrel (Skäddel) and Sedelsberg (Sedelsbierich). The four villages form one municipality, Staerland, which is part of Landkreis Cloppenburg.

The map shows the location of the Saterland. On the left it is marked in grey and on the right is shown in more detail within the district of Cloppenburg.5)


Sater Frisian is one of the three Frisian languages alongside West Frisian and North Frisian. Sater Frisian is the only variety of East Frisian alive today. 6) 7) It was discussed whether Sater Frisian is a Frisian dialect or an own language because of its little number of speakers nowadays. Furthermore, researchers were unsure if it then belonged to the groups of Frisian or German dialects. 8)It is now recognised as a minority language. The four main villages where it is spoken have mutually intelligible dialects. 9)10)

Map showing West-Frisian (purple), East Frisian (light blue) and North Frisian (dark blue) 11)

Speaker numbers

Estimates of speaker numbers vary between a 1000 and 5000.12)13)14)15) Stellmacher (1998) conducted a study with his students in 1995, where they only asked a selected number of people to participate in their study to find out about the Sater Frisian language situation. Of the approx. 12.000 citizens of the Saterland, they excluded immigrants, people with a secondary residence in the Saterland region and children under 14. In the end, 10% of the remaining 8.334 citizens were then interviewed. The results showed that 4.058 people claimed that they understand Saterfrisian. The younger the citizen the smaller the knowledge of the language. The numbers of speakers vary from village to village. All in all, the number of active speakers is around 2.250 which is almost as high as 100 years ago (2.500) so people are encouraged to save the language since it stayed with the people for so long. 16)


Education of the language

History of language education:

The Saterland is known as the smallest “language island” in Europe according to the Guinness Book of Records from 1991.17) In 1996 it was reported that Sater Frisian was neither the language used for administration nor in church. Only two hours a week were offered for teaching in primary school. There were no audiovisual teaching materials available. 18) However, this was already an improvement from 1988, when Sater Frisian was not present in schools at all, although people would have supported it. 19)

Dr Marron Fort is one of the researchers who is helping to maintain Sater Frisian significantly. He came to Germany in 1965 and fell in love with the language. He decided to stay in Germany and has since helped considerably in reviving Sater Frisian. Moreover, he has translated the New Testament into Sater Frisian and created the Sater Frisian Dictionary. This laid the foundation for more Sater Frisian literature. 20) 21) The work of Fort is also used as reference for school materials.22)

The presence of Sater Frisian in the school system is not very widespread and the varies per school. In 2010 the Saterland introduced the model project “Das Saterland als Modellregion für frühe Mehrsprachigkeit” which translates to “The Saterland as a model region for early multilingualism”. This project aims to educate (pre-)school teachers in the Sater Frisian language so that they can pass it on. 23) Since January 2012, children at primary school in Saterland have the opportunity to learn Sater Frisian.24) There are opportunities to have Sater Frisian classes in secondary school.25)

In 2020 and 2021, the classes in Sater Frisian came to a (temporary) halt due to the COVID-19 pandemic. 26) 27)

Legislation of language education

Legislation on European Level

European Charter for Regional or Minority languages

Sater Frisian is covered by the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages under Part II and Part III since 1999.

It encourages the use of Sater Frisian in pre-school, primary school, secondary and higher education. It is not mentioned if the teachers are allowed to use Sater Frisian as the language of instruction.28)

In the report from 2014 several important aspects were mentioned:

  • Sater Frisian should be implemented in pre-school education, however, in which manner is to be decided by local authorities
  • in comparison to the 4th report, the Land authorities do not see the need to have Sater Frisian taught in pre-primary school (Kindergarten)
  • a course in Sater Frisian has been offered in higher education at the University of Oldenburg since 2009
  • in 2011, a teaching program for Low German and Sater Frisian was added to the program of the University of Oldenburg
  • there is a need for a policy which encourages more schools to teach Sater Frisian29)

Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities

Germany has signed and ratified the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities, which has been in force since 1998. With it, Germany recognized the national minorities of the Danes, of the Sorbian people and of the German Sinti and Roma, and the ethnic group of Frisians in Germany. 30)

Legislation on national level

In Germany, four national minorities are recognized: the Frisians, the Danes, the German Sinti and Roma, and the Sorbs. Among the Frisians are the North Frisian and East Frisians (among them, Sater Frisians). 31)32)

The German school system is governed by the federal principles of the state, and each state is responsible for its educational system. 33)

Legislation on Local Level

Lower Saxony School Act

In 1998, Lower Saxony adopted the Lower Saxony School Act (Niedersächsisches Schulgesetz ) There, it is stated that pupils should be able to develop their possibilities to understand, perceive and express, including the relevant regional form of Low German or Frisian.34)

The Region and its Languages in Education

In 2011, Lower Saxony adopted the The Region and its Languages in Education (Die Region und ihre Sprachen im Unterricht). This decree states that schools take into account regional references and promote regional awareness. It promotes the inclusion and education of both Low German and Sater Frisian, and provides that a primary school can teach regional or minority languages ​​in selected subjects from the compulsory lesson plan.35)

The Region and the Languages Low German and Sater Frisian in Education

In 2019, Lower Saxony adopted the The Region and the Languages Low German and Sater Frisian in Education (Die Region und die Sprachen Niederdeutsch und Saterfriesisch im Unterricht). Based upon the previous 2011 act, this act provides the opportunity for primar schools to teach Sater Frisian in selected subjects on the compulsory curriculum, with the exception of German and the foreign language. The lessons are offered in two languages or by immersion. This learning path can be continued in secondary school, where the acts also provides the opportunity to use Sater Frisian in elective courses, compulsory elective courses or in compulsory elective subjects (with the exception of foreign languages).

For students to enroll classes in Sater Frisian, permission is needed from their legal guardian. The Lower Saxony State School Authority supports the schools with advice.36)

Institutional support for education of the language:

Before the teacher training started to be financially supported in 2010, the Saterland Association called “Seelter Buund” tried to incorporate Sater Frisian in (pre-)primary schools. This was mostly done by voluntary workers. They have been offering courses for adults as well. Since 2010 the focus was shifted to developing teaching materials and training teachers. Furthermore, the whole region is doing their best in supporting the model project. Another aim is to spread awareness of the language and encourage more people to actively speak it. 37)


Education presence

Pre-school education

Since 1995, the Seelter Buund has started a project to include Sater Frisian in nursery schools. Now, there are five Bäidenstuune, nursery schools, where Sater Frisian is given by volunteers;

  • St. Jakobus-Bäidenstuun in Roomelse, Ramsloh
  • Pusteblume in Roomelse, Ramsloh
  • St. Georg in Strukelje, Strücklingen
  • Unterm Regenbogen in Skäddel, Scharrel
  • St. Marien in Seedelsbierich, Sedelsberg

Each group has around thirty children attending, and in 2011, there were 140 children who had Sater Frisian in nursery school. There is a project to train more people to include Sater Frisian in nursery schools. 38).

Primary education

Since 1996, Sater Frisian is included in all primary schools of the municipaltiy. Children can attend one hour of Sater Frisian as a voluntary subject. In 2011, 150 children attended Stater Frisian class.39) The primary schools that offer Stater Frisian are:

  • Gruundskoule in Roomelse, Ramsloh
  • Litje Skoule in Skäddel, Scharrel
  • Marien-Skoule in Strukelje, Strücklingen
  • Astrid-Líndgren-Skoule in Seedelsbierich, Sedelsberg

Schools can decide themselves which subjects they want to teach in Sater Frisian. The Landesschulbehörde zur Förderung der Sprachbegegnung und des Spracherwerbs provides 265 hours per school year for teaching the minority language. Sater Frisian is also used in school projects, theatre productions or other kinds of public school events.40)41)

In 2010, a project Seeltersk an do Skoulen in Seelterlound (Sater Frisian at the schools in Saterland) was initiated. This strives for all primary school children to have the choice to have Sater Frisian as language of instruction except for the subjects of German and English, or to have the one hour subject Sater Frisian. For this project, teacher training in Sater Frisian is the first step, which is funded by the Niedersächsische Kultusministerium and the Oldenburgische Landschaft, Universität Oldenburg and the Seelter Buund. 42).

The primary school Litje Skoule in Skäddel, Scharrel, offers immersion education in Sater Frisian.43) However, due to the COVIC-19 pandemic, there has been a (temporary) stop since 2020.44) 45)

Secondary education

For secondary education, Sater Frisian is offered as elective subject:

  • Schulzentrum Saterland in Roomelse, Ramsloh: offers Sater Frisian as voluntary subject at the Realschüle, but not at the Hauptschüle46)
  • Laurentius-Siemer-Gymnasium in Roomelse, Ramsloh: offers an elective Sater Frisian course 47)

Tertiary education

At the University of Oldenburg, Sater Frisian is offered as a course within the Germanic department.


Learning resources

Organisations

Online resources


1) , 9)
World Heritage Encyclopedia, Saterland Frisian Language Germany, World Heritage Encyclopedia, [last accessed 10-12-2017].
2)
Ethnologue, Saterfriesisch, Ethnologue, Saterfriesisch, [last accessed 10-12-2017].
3) , 4) , 7) , 21)
Fort, Marron (2000) Das Neue Testament und die Psalmen in der osterlauwersfriesischen Ursprache des Saterlandes, Frieslands, Butjadingens, Ostfrieslands und der Groninger Ommelanden, Das neue Testament und die Psalmen, [last accessed 10-12-2017]
5) , 6)
Heeringa, W. et. al (2015), Cross-Linguistic Vowel Variation in Saterland: Saterland Frisian, Low German, and High German, Cross-Linguistic Vowel Variation in Saterland, [last accessed 10-12-2017].
8)
Stellmacher, Dieter (1993), Das Saterfriesische - eine Sprache in Niedersachsen? in Zeitschrift für Dialektologie und Linguistik, Franz Steiner Verlag, pp. 280-91 Das Saterfriesische, [last accessed 10-12-2017].
10) , 24) , 28) , 29)
Council of Europe (2014). European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages: Application of the Charter in Germany, 5th Monitoring Cycle. https://rm.coe.int/CoERMPublicCommonSearchServices/DisplayDCTMContent?documentId=09000016806d8829.
11)
ArnoldPlaton. (2013) Frisian languages in Europe.svg Creative Commons: CC BY-SA 3.0
12)
Moseley, Christopher (ed.)(2010). Saterlandic. Atlas of the World’s Languages in Danger, 3rd edn. Paris, UNESCO Publishing. http://www.unesco.org/culture/languages-atlas/en/atlasmap/language-id-346.html.
13)
Endangered Languages Project (n.d.) Saterfriesisch. Endangered Languages Project. http://www.endangeredlanguages.com/lang/3052.
14) , 16)
Fort, Marron (2001), Reviewed Work: Das Saterland und das Saterländische by Dieter Stellmacher in Zeitschrift für Dialektologie und Linguistik 68. Jahrg., H. 1, pp. 100-102 Review: Das Saterland und das Saterländische, [last accessed 10-12-2017].
15)
Seeltersk.de (n.d.) Q&A Saterfriesisch. Seeltersk.de Meedeelengen fonne Seelterfräiskbeapdraagde. https://www.seeltersk.de/archiv/was-ist-saterfriesisch/
17) , 37)
Gemeinde Saterland, Saterfriesische Sprache, [last accessed 10-12-2017].
18)
Wilts, Ommo and Fort, Marron (1996), Nordfriesland und Saterland: Friesisch zwischen Meer Und Moor, (Brüssel: Europäisches Büro für Sprachminderheiten), pp.28-48
19)
Martinen, Hark et. al, (1988) The North Frisian Language in Primary Education in North Frisia, Federal Republic of Germany: Die Nordfriesische Sprache im Unterricht Der Grundschulen in Nordfriesland, Bundesrepublik Deutschland, Ljouwert, Leeuwarden: Fryske Akademy.
20) , 23)
Dein Niedersachsen (2017) Saterland, Gemeinde mit eigener Sprache, Saterland, [last accessed 10-12-2017].
22) , 43)
Litje Skoule Skäddel - Grundschule Scharrel. (2020, March). Saterfriesisch. Litje Skoule Skäddel - Grundschule Scharrel. http://www.grundschule-scharrel.de/seite/196926/saterfriesisch.html.
25) , 36)
Die Region und die Sprachen Niederdeutsch und Saterfriesisch im Unterricht, SVBl. 2019 Nr. 6, S. 288 (2019). http://www.nds-voris.de/jportal/?quelle=jlink&query=VVND-224100-MK-20190601-SF&psml=bsvorisprod.psml&max=true.
26) , 44)
Fertig, A. (2021, February 20). Corona_laehmt_Unterricht. General Anzeiger. https://www.seeltersk.de/wp-content/uploads/Corona_laehmt_Unterricht_GA_2021_Feb_20.jpg.
27) , 45)
Hemken-Wulf, R. (2021 May 8) Corona stoppt vorerst Saterfriesisch-Unterricht. Nordwest Zeitung. https://www.seeltersk.de/wp-content/uploads/08052021-NWZ-Corona-stoppt-vorerst-Saterfriesisch-Unterricht.pdf.
30)
Council of Europe (n.d.). Germany. https://www.coe.int/en/web/minorities/germany.
31)
Bundesministerium des Innern für Bau und Heimat (2020). Nationale Minderheiten Minderheitensprachen und die Regional­sprache Niederdeutsch in Deutschland. https://www.bmi.bund.de/SharedDocs/downloads/DE/publikationen/themen/heimat-integration/nationale-minderheiten/minderheiten-und-regionalsprachen-vierte-auflage.pdf?__blob=publicationFile&v=8.
32)
Bundesministerium des Innern für Bau und Heimat (n.d.). Nationale Minderheiten in Deutschland. https://www.bmi.bund.de/DE/themen/heimat-integration/minderheiten/minderheiten-in-deutschland/minderheiten-in-deutschland-node.html.
33)
Mercator (2016) Sorbian: The Sorbian Language in Education in Germany. Leeuwarden: Mercator European Research Centre on Multilingualism and Language Learning.
35)
Die Region und ihre Sprachen im Unterricht, Erl. d. MK v.2011 – 21-82101/3-2 (2011).
38)
Wikiwand. (n.d.). Seeltersk in dän Bäidenstuun. Retrieved March 25, 2020, from https://www.wikiwand.com/stq/Seeltersk_in_d%C3%A4n_B%C3%A4idenstuun.
39) , 42) , 46)
Wikiwand. (n.d.). Seeltersk an do Skoulen. Retrieved March 25, 2020, from https://www.wikiwand.com/stq/Seeltersk_an_do_Skoulen.
40)
Niedersächsisches Kultusministerium (2014), „Plattdeutsche und Saterfriesische Schule“- Acht weitere Schulen in Niedersachsen ausgezeichnet http://www.mk.niedersachsen.de/startseite/aktuelles/presseinformationen/plattdeutsche-und-saterfriesische-schule--acht-weitere-schulen-in-niedersachsen-ausgezeichnet-130200.html, [last accessed 10-12-2017].
41) , 47)
Mikulski, T. (2015). Schüler des LSG-Wahlkurses „Saterfriesisch“ drehen in Scharrel. Retrieved from https://www.lsg-ramsloh.de/index.php/nachrichten-aus-der-schule/114-presseberichte/587-schueler-des-lsg-wahlkurses-saterfriesisch-drehen-in-scharrel.html.
languages/saterfrisian_in_germany.1621436051.txt.gz · Last modified: 2021/05/19 16:54 by ydwine

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