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languages:kalmyk_in_russia

Kalmyk in Kalmykia, Russia

Language designations:

Language vitality:

Linguistic aspects:

  • Classification: Mongolic → Oirat-Khalkha
  • Script: Cyrillic with six additional symbols (since 1959). Kalmyk used to be written with a Kalmyk script, i.e. since 1648. Until now, only few works in this script have been transliterated into the new script 1). See Russian legislation concerning script.

Listen to the language here

Language standardization:

Demographics

Language Area

Kalmyk is spoken in the republic of Kalmykia, by Kalmyks living in the neighbouring regions of Astrakhan, Volgograd, and Rostov, all part of the Russian Federation, by small groups in Diasporas in France, Germany, and the USA, and by the Oyrats living in China (The Oyrats themselves refer to their language as Oyrat). 2)

operating instructions

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keyboard operation

Keyboard operation becomes available after activating the map using the tab key (the map will show a focus indicator ring).

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It's possible that some of the functions or buttons describe above have been disabled by the page author or the administrator

The federation of Kalmykia

 

Points of Interest
id symbol latitude longitude description
The federation of Kalmykia
GeoJSON file GeoJSON object GeoJSON track: kalmyk in kalmykia.geo

Speaker numbers


Language and education legislation

History of language education:

At the beginning of the 20th century, the Kalmyks used only the Kalmyk language. After the October Revolution Kalmyk-Medium schools were opened. The Kalmyks gained access to education and quickly became bilingual (Kalmyk and Russian). Deportation to Siberia in 1943 under Stalin reduced the Kalmyk population by one fifth or half (depending on the source), and among the deported, (who came from all over Russia), Russian was the language of communication. The Kalmyks were allowed to return in 1957, but the deportation had caused a significant loss in the Kalmyk language use3). In the 1960's and 70's drastic cuts were made to native-language-education, and native-language use was discouraged. The last national Kalmyk-medium school was closed in 1963. In the 1980's, with the beginning of the Perestroika, things started to look better again, and in 1991 the law On Languages in the Kalmyk Soviet Socialist Republic (No. 137-IX) was adopted, which states that both Russian and Kalmyk are languages of the state in Kalmykia.4)

Legislation of the Russian Federation:

The Constitution of Russia states that “everyone shall have the right to education”. This is further detailed in the Federal Law on Education. In Russia one has the right to receive education in the native language and the government is required to provide the opportunities for minorities in Russia to learn their language(s). 5) However, several changes from 2007 on have restricted the education of minority languages.

Modified: 18-03-2020

Federal legislation:

The act On the Languages of Peoples of the Republic of Kalmykia (No. 137-IX) (1999) states that:

  • both Russian and Kalmyk are languages of the state in Kalmykia;
  • the Republic of Kalmykia has the responsibility to care for the preservation, revival, and development of the Kalmyk language;
  • To realize this, the Republic must create conditions for its use in the state and public spheres of life, raise its prestige, and promote standardization, and dissemination; 6)
Modified: 08-11-2016, 11:34

Educational legislation:

The Concept of the National System of Education was adopted in 1993, which states that:

  • Kalmyk is to be used as medium of instruction in all schools of the Republic.

Inspection of compliance with educational legislation:


Education in practice

In the Nineties, there were two types of schools in Kalmykia:

  • schools with tuition in Russian with Kalmyk as a subject;
  • schools with a Kalmyk curriculum and Russian as a subject 7).

In 1995 there were 67 classes with tuition in Kalmyk and 83 nursery groups with Kalmyk as medium.

Data from 20018) # of children # of children learning Kalmyk
In pre-school education 9,368 8,764 (93,6%)
In school 55113 39705 (72,0%)
In vocational education 7007 5220 (74,5%)

In 2006, nearly all children of Kalmyk nationality aged from 3 to 18 were taught Kalmyk.9)

Since 2001 9th- and 11th-form students of Kalmyk nationality must take an exam in Kalmyk language and literature. 67.8% of the 9th-graders and 82.3% of the 11th-graders received “Excellent” of “Good” marks.10)


Learning resources and educational institutions

1)
Kornusova, B. (2006). Developing Language Teaching Strategies: the Kalmyk Experience. In D. Ó Riagáin (Ed.), Voces diversae: lesser-used language education in Europe. Belfast: Cló Ollscoil na Banríona
2) , 8) , 9) , 10)
Kornusova, B. (2006). Developing Language Teaching Strategies: the Kalmyk Experience. In D. Ó Riagáin (Ed.), Voces diversae: lesser-used language education in Europe. Belfast: Cló Ollscoil na Banríona.
3)
Chetryrova, L.(2001). Educational Policy Towards Minorities in Russia: History and Modernity: the case of the Kalmyk Education. In: Ethnicity and Race: Creating Educational Opportunities Around the Globe International Advances in Education: Global Initiatives for Equity and Social Justice. Brown,E. L., and Gibbons, P. E. (Ed.). Information Age Publishing (pp. 3-25).
4) , 6)
Kornusova, B. (2006). Developing Language Teaching Strategies: the Kalmyk Experience. In D. Ó Riagáin (Ed.), Voces diversae: lesser-used language education in Europe. Belfast: Cló Ollscoil na Banríona.
5)
The Law Library of Congress (2016). Constitutional Right to an Education: Russia . Retrieved January 2017. Available at: https://www.loc.gov/law/help/constitutional-right-to-an-education/russia.php#Constitutional.
7)
Gouchinova, E. B. (2013). Language and the ethnolinguistic situation. In: The Kalmyks. (Lewis, D. C., Trans.) Routledge (pp. 60-77) (Original work published 2006).
languages/kalmyk_in_russia.txt · Last modified: 2020/03/18 15:48 by ydwine

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