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Legislation concerning European minority languages is determined by each souvereign state. There are two European treaties which are defined and reported on by the Council of Europe. Individual member states can legally commit to these treaties by signature and/or ratification. The two treaties concerning minority and/or regional languages are:
The Charter operates similar to other covenants: it proposes measures that nations, which ratify the Charter, should take. In the Charter's case, these measures are divided into two separate sets called “Part II” and “Part III”:
Look here for an overview of which language is protected by which Part of the Charter.
Part II, article 7, describes several objectives and principles on which Parties shall base their policies, legislation and practice. Concerning education, a few paragraphs stand out:
In addition to Part II, languages can also be recognized under Part III. Part III covers education; judicial authorities; administrative authorities and public services; media; cultural activities and facilities; economic and social life; and transfrontier exchanges. The country has to apply a minimum of 35 (sub-)paragraphs from Part III, including at least three (3) from Article 8 on Education.
To determine whether member states uphold the policies of the Charter, a delegate from the Council of Europe visits the member states every few years and reports about their compliance.
The Framework Convention proposes principles that nations, which ratify the Framework Convention, should respect and achieve. Concerning education, a few articles stand out:
The Parties undertake to promote equal opportunities for access to education at all levels for persons belonging to national minorities. To determine whether member states uphold the principles of the Framework Convention, an Advisory Committee delegation visits the member states every few years and reports about their compliance, to which the nation state will react and comment.
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