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languages:saterfrisian_in_germany

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Sater Frisian in Germany

Language designations:

  • In the language itself: Saterfriesisch, native: Seeltersk 1)
  • ISO 639-3 standard: stq 2)

Language vitality according to:

Linguistic aspects:

  • Classification: Indo-European → Germanic. For more information, see sate1242 at Glottolog
  • Script: Latin

Language standardization

The American linguist Marron Fort collected words while doing linguistic research over a span of 20 years in Saterland.3) With this collection, he created the Sater Frisian Dictionary and by that a coherent orthography. With help of this dictionary, he translated the New Testament into Sater Frisian. 4)

Demographics

Language Area

Saterfrisian or Seeltersk as it is called by its speakers is nowadays spoken in four villages near Cloppenburg in Lower Saxony: Struecklingen (Strukelje), Ramsloh (Roomelse) and Scharrel (Skäddel) and Sedelsberg (Sedelsbierich). The four villages form one municipality, Staerland, which is part of Landkreis Cloppenburg.

The map shows the location of the Saterland. On the left it is marked in grey and on the right is shown in more detail within the district of Cloppenburg.5)


Sater Frisian is one of the three Frisian languages alongside West Frisian and North Frisian. Sater Frisian is the only variety of East Frisian alive today. 6) 7) It was discussed whether Sater Frisian is a Frisian dialect or an own language because of its little number of speakers nowadays. Furthermore, researchers were unsure if it then belonged to the groups of Frisian or German dialects. 8)It is now recognised as a minority language. The four main villages where it is spoken have mutually intelligible dialects. 9) 10)

Map showing West-Frisian (purple), East Frisian (light blue) and North Frisian (dark blue) 11)

Speaker numbers

Stellmacher (1998) conducted a study with his students in 1995, where they only asked a selected number of people to participate in their study to find out about the Sater Frisian language situation. Of the approx. 12.000 citizens of the Saterland, they excluded immigrants, people with a secondary residence in the Saterland region and children under 14. In the end, 10% of the remaining 8.334 citizens were then interviewed. The results showed that 4.058 people claimed that they understand Saterfrisian. The younger the citizen the smaller the knowledge of the language. The numbers of speakers vary from village to village. All in all, the number of active speakers is around 2.250 which is almost as high as 100 years ago (2.500) so people are encouraged to save the language since it stayed with the people for so long. 12)


Education of the language

History of language education:

The Saterland is known as the smallest “language island” in Europe according to the Guinness Book of Records from 1991.13) In 1996 it was reported that Sater Frisian was neither the language used for administration nor in church. Only two hours a week were offered for teaching in primary school. There were no audiovisual teaching materials available. 14) However, this was already an improvement from 1988, when Sater Frisian was not present in schools at all, although people would have supported it. 15)

The presence of Sater Frisian in the school system is still not very widespread. In 2010 the Saterland introduced the model project “Das Saterland als Modellregion für frühe Mehrsprachigkeit” which translates to “The Saterland as a model region for early multilingualism”. This project aims to educate (pre-)school teachers in the Sater Frisian language so that they can pass it on. 16)

Dr Marron Fort is one of the researchers who is helping to maintain Sater Frisian significantly. He came to Germany in 1965 and fell in love with the language. He decided to stay in Germany and has since helped considerably in reviving Sater Frisian. Moreover, he has translated the New Testament into Sater Frisian and created the Sater Frisian Dictionary. This laid the foundation for more Sater Frisian literature. 17) 18)

According to the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages the Lower Saxony Media Act. required broadcaster in 2010 to include minority languages such as Sater Frisian. This is an ongoing process but a first step was made by the public-access radio Ems-Vechte-Welle which broadcasts “the two-hour program called Middeeges in Sater Frisian every second Sunday”. 19)

Legislation of language education

European legislation

Sater Frisian is covered by the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages under Part II and Part III since 1999.

It encourages the use of Sater Frisian in pre-school, primary school, secondary and higher education. It is not mentioned if the teachers are allowed to use Sater Frisian as the language of instruction. 20) In the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages from 2014 several important aspects were mentioned:

  • Sater Frisian should be implemented in pre-school education, however, in which manner is to be decided by local authorities
  • in comparison to the 4th report, the Land authorities do not see the need to have Sater Frisian taught in pre-primary school (Kindergarten)
  • a course in Sater Frisian has been offered in higher education at the University of Oldenburg since 2009
  • 2011 a teaching program for Low German and Sater Frisian was added to the program of the University of Oldenburg
  • there is a need for a policy which encourages more schools to teach Sater Frisian21)

Institutional support for education of the language:

Before the teacher training started to be financially supported in 2010, the Saterland Association called “Seelter Buund” tried to incorporate Sater Frisian in (pre-)primary schools. This was mostly done by voluntary workers. They have been offering courses for adults as well. Since 2010 the focus was shifted to developing teaching materials and training teachers. Furthermore, the whole region is doing their best in supporting the model project. Another aim is to spread awareness of the language and encourage more people to actively speak it. 22)

Education presence

So far there are only two so-called Sater Frisian schools. Until now, the schools can decide themselves which subjects they want to teach in Sater Frisian. The Landesschulbehörde zur Förderung der Sprachbegegnung und des Spracherwerbs provides 265 hours per school year for teaching the minority language. In primary schools, it is part of the mandatory subjects whereas in secondary education it is optional. Sater Frisian is also used in school projects, theatre productions or other kinds of public school events. There is no research done yet on how successful the project is. 23)

Online learning resources

The Sater Frisian - German dictionary

A collection of Sater Frisian text and general information

"Wimmelspiel" app for iOS and Android was created for 3 to 6 year old children as well as for adults to start learning Sater Frisian


Mercator's Regional Dossier:

A Mercator's Regional Dossier is not yet available.

1) , 9)
World Heritage Encyclopedia, Saterland Frisian Language Germany, World Heritage Encyclopedia, [last accessed 10-12-2017].
2)
Ethnologue, Saterfriesisch, Ethnologue, Saterfriesisch, [last accessed 10-12-2017].
3) , 4) , 7) , 18)
Fort, Marron (2000) Das Neue Testament und die Psalmen in der osterlauwersfriesischen Ursprache des Saterlandes, Frieslands, Butjadingens, Ostfrieslands und der Groninger Ommelanden, Das neue Testament und die Psalmen, [last accessed 10-12-2017]
5) , 6)
Heeringa, W. et. al (2015), Cross-Linguistic Vowel Variation in Saterland: Saterland Frisian, Low German, and High German, Cross-Linguistic Vowel Variation in Saterland, [last accessed 10-12-2017].
8)
Stellmacher, Dieter (1993), Das Saterfriesische - eine Sprache in Niedersachsen? in Zeitschrift für Dialektologie und Linguistik, Franz Steiner Verlag, pp. 280-91 Das Saterfriesische, [last accessed 10-12-2017].
10) , 19) , 20) , 21)
European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages, Application of the Charter in Germany, 5th monitoring circle (2014) pp. 40-45 Application of the Charter in Germany, [(last accessed 10-12-2017]
11)
ArnoldPlaton. (2013) Frisian languages in Europe.svg Creative Commons: CC BY-SA 3.0
12)
Fort, Marron (2001), Reviewed Work: Das Saterland und das Saterländische by Dieter Stellmacher in Zeitschrift für Dialektologie und Linguistik 68. Jahrg., H. 1, pp. 100-102 Review: Das Saterland und das Saterländische, [last accessed 10-12-2017].
13) , 22)
Gemeinde Saterland, Saterfriesische Sprache, [last accessed 10-12-2017].
14)
Wilts, Ommo and Fort, Marron (1996), Nordfriesland und Saterland: Friesisch zwischen Meer Und Moor, (Brüssel: Europäisches Büro für Sprachminderheiten), pp.28-48
15)
Martinen, Hark et. al, (1988) The North Frisian Language in Primary Education in North Frisia, Federal Republic of Germany: Die Nordfriesische Sprache im Unterricht Der Grundschulen in Nordfriesland, Bundesrepublik Deutschland, Ljouwert, Leeuwarden: Fryske Akademy.
16) , 17)
Dein Niedersachsen (2017) Saterland, Gemeinde mit eigener Sprache, Saterland, [last accessed 10-12-2017].
23)
Niedersächsisches Kultusministerium (2014), „Plattdeutsche und Saterfriesische Schule“- Acht weitere Schulen in Niedersachsen ausgezeichnet Plattdeutsche und Saterfriesische Schule, [last accessed 10-12-2017].
languages/saterfrisian_in_germany.1585123243.txt.gz · Last modified: 2020/03/25 09:00 by ydwine

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