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languages:udmurt_in_russia [2020/03/17 08:52]
ydwine [Linguistic aspects:]
languages:udmurt_in_russia [2020/10/05 11:36] (current)
ydwine [Language vitality according to:]
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 ==== Language vitality according to: ==== ==== Language vitality according to: ====
-^ [[http://​www.unesco.org/​languages-atlas/​|UNESCO]] ​              ​^ [[https://​www.ethnologue.com/​language/​udm/​|Ethnologue]] ​ ^ [[http://​www.endangeredlanguages.com/​lang/​3010|Endangered Languages]] ​ ^ + [[http://​www.unesco.org/​languages-atlas/​|UNESCO]] ​  [[https://​www.ethnologue.com/​language/​udm/​|Ethnologue]] ​ ^  [[http://​www.endangeredlanguages.com/​lang/​3010|Endangered Languages]]  ^  [[https://​glottolog.org/​resource/​languoid/​id/​udmu1245|Glottolog]]  ^ 
-| {{ :​endangerment:​yellow.png?​nolink | Definitively endangered}} ​ | {{ :​endangerment:​blue.png?​nolink | Developing}} ​         | {{ :​endangerment:​yellow.png?​nolink | Threatened}} ​                      ​|+ {{:​endangerment:​yellow.png?​nolink|Definitively endangered}} ​ |  {{:​endangerment:​blue.png?​nolink|Developing}} ​  {{:​endangerment:​yellow.png?​nolink|Threatened}} ​ ​| ​ {{:​endangerment:​orange.png?​nolink|Shifting}}  ​|
 ==== Linguistic aspects: ===== ==== Linguistic aspects: =====
   * Classification:​ //Uralic// → //​Permian//​. For more information,​ see [[http://​glottolog.org/​resource/​languoid/​id/​udmu1245|udmu1245]] at [[http://​glottolog.org/​|Glottolog]]   * Classification:​ //Uralic// → //​Permian//​. For more information,​ see [[http://​glottolog.org/​resource/​languoid/​id/​udmu1245|udmu1245]] at [[http://​glottolog.org/​|Glottolog]]
-  * Script: Cyrillic. See [[general_information:​russian_legislation|Russian legislation concerning script]].+  * Script: Cyrillic. See [[general_information:​russian_legislation#​Legislation concerning Script|Russian legislation concerning script]].
  
 ==== Language standardization ==== ==== Language standardization ====
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 ==== History of language education: ==== ==== History of language education: ====
  
-In the 1920's and 1930'​s,​ an increase in Udmurt national consciousness led to the foundation of several Udmurt schools. However, in the following years, these early efforts to establish Udmurt-language education were crushed during the late 1930s, as the main leaders of the fledgling Udmurt national movement were eradicated in the Stalinist purges ((Holland, A., //Trends in Soviet and Post-Soviet Udmurt cultural memory//. Vestnik: The Journal of Russian and Asian Studies, 2014. Retrieved from: http://​www.sras.org/​udmurt_cultural_memory)). In the first years after World War II, translations of schoolbooks to Udmurt were still attested, but from the 1960s, Udmurt-language teaching materials ceased to be produced ((Nikitina, G. A., //Qui est responsable de la préservation des langues mioritaires:​ le cas de la langue Oudmourte.//​ Études Finno-Ougriennes;​ 2013, 45, pp. 1-14.)). This absence of the Udmurt language in education persisted for several decades, until the fall of the Soviet Union. The main mark of a school'​s success became the pupils'​ knowledge attained through the medium of the Russian language. From the 1990s onwards, this attitude changed slightly. Russian legislation provided for a three-tier curriculum, which divided the subjects in a mandatory federal part, a national-regional part mandated by the federal subjects, and a variable part which can be filled in by individual schools ((Васильева,​ Г. Н., //​Национально-региональный компонент в стандарте образования Удмуртской Республики:​ опыт и проблемы//​. Эмиссия,​ 2006. Retrieved from http://​emissia.org/​offline/​2006/​1082.htm)). This national-regional part of the curriculum allowed more room for both the Udmurt government and individual schools to reintroduce education in the Udmurt language and culture in so-called national schools ((Protassova,​ E., Alòs i Font, H., & Bulatova, E., //Education in Udmurt and Chuvash as minority languages of Russia//. InterDisciplines;​ 2014, 5(2), pp.1-33.)). However, a federal education reform in 2007 abolished the national-regional part of the curriculum, which greatly reduced the opportunities regional governments had to implement education in Udmurt ((Zamyatin, K., //​Finno-Ugric languages in Russian education: The changing legal-institutional framework and falling access to native language learning//. Études Finno-Ougriennes,​ 2012, 44, pp. 1-57)).+In the 1920's and 1930'​s,​ an increase in Udmurt national consciousness led to the foundation of several Udmurt schools. However, in the following years, these early efforts to establish Udmurt-language education were crushed during the late 1930s, as the main leaders of the fledgling Udmurt national movement were eradicated in the Stalinist purges ((Holland, A., //Trends in Soviet and Post-Soviet Udmurt cultural memory//. Vestnik: The Journal of Russian and Asian Studies, 2014. Retrieved from: http://​www.sras.org/​udmurt_cultural_memory)). In the first years after World War II, translations of schoolbooks to Udmurt were still attested, but from the 1960s, Udmurt-language teaching materials ceased to be produced ((Nikitina, G. A., //Qui est responsable de la préservation des langues mioritaires:​ le cas de la langue Oudmourte.//​ Études Finno-Ougriennes;​ 2013, 45, pp. 1-14.)). This absence of the Udmurt language in education persisted for several decades, until the fall of the Soviet Union. The main mark of a school'​s success became the pupils'​ knowledge attained through the medium of the Russian language. From the 1990s onwards, this attitude changed slightly. Russian legislation provided for a three-tier curriculum, which divided the subjects in a mandatory federal part, a national-regional part mandated by the federal subjects, and a variable part which can be filled in by individual schools ((Васильева,​ Г. Н., //​Национально-региональный компонент в стандарте образования Удмуртской Республики:​ опыт и проблемы//​. Эмиссия,​ 2006. Retrieved from http://​emissia.org/​offline/​2006/​1082.htm)). This national-regional part of the curriculum allowed more room for both the Udmurt government and individual schools to reintroduce education in the Udmurt language and culture in so-called national schools ((Protassova,​ E., Alòs i Font, H., & Bulatova, E., //Education in Udmurt and Chuvash as minority languages of Russia//. InterDisciplines;​ 2014, 5(2), pp.1-33.)). However, a federal education ​[[general_information:​russian_legislation#​Amendment 2007|reform in 2007]] abolished the national-regional part of the curriculum, which greatly reduced the opportunities regional governments had to implement education in Udmurt ((Zamyatin, K., //​Finno-Ugric languages in Russian education: The changing legal-institutional framework and falling access to native language learning//. Études Finno-Ougriennes,​ 2012, 44, pp. 1-57)). The [[general_information:​russian_legislation#​Developments 2018|developments of 2018]] made that Udmurt education could no longer be set as a mandatory subject. This led to protest with an open letter and the self-immolation of Udmurt language activist Albert Razin on September 10, 2019 ((Radio Free Europe: Radio Liberty. (2019, October 8). //Dying To Keep A Language Alive: Scholar'​s Suicide Shakes Udmurtia.// Retrieved from: [[https://​www.rferl.org/​a/​russia-udmurtia-language-protest/​30206046.html]].)) ((Aitkhozhina,​ D. (2019, September 12). //​Self-Immolation Highlights Controversy over Cultural Rights in Russia: A national debate on minority cultural rights is the backdrop to the death of an academic in the Russian republic of Udmurtia.// Retrieved from: [[https://​www.hrw.org/​news/​2019/​09/​12/​self-immolation-highlights-controversy-over-cultural-rights-russia]].)).
  
 ==== Legislation of language education ==== ==== Legislation of language education ====
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 === Online learning resources === === Online learning resources ===
  
-[[http://​udmurt.info/​udmurt/​courses.htm|Удмуртология]] - Russian-language website where you can take several Udmurt courses.+  * [[http://​udmurt.info/​udmurt/​courses.htm|Удмуртология]] - Russian-language website where you can take several Udmurt courses. 
 +  * [[https://​vk.com/​udmurteveryday|Удмуртский каждый день]] - Social media group on which pictures with phrases in Udmurt and Russian are posted, in order to teach basic Udmurt to non-speakers. 
 +  * [[https://​www.memrise.com/​|Memrise]] - Language learning site, offering a course on Udmurt-English vocabulary (1841 words) 
 +  * [[https://​glosbe.com/​en/​udm|Glosbe]] - Community-moderated online dictionary. 
 +  * [[https://​www.omniglot.com/​language/​numbers/​udmurt.htm|Omniglot]] - numbers
  
-[[https://​vk.com/​udmurteveryday|Удмуртский каждый день]] - Social media group on which pictures with phrases in Udmurt and Russian are posted, in order to teach basic Udmurt to non-speakers. 
- 
-[[https://​www.memrise.com/​|Memrise]] - Language learning site, offering a course on Udmurt-English vocabulary (1841 words) 
- 
-[[https://​glosbe.com/​en/​udm|Glosbe]] Community-moderated online dictionary, which currently contains 1651 words and phrases. 
  
  
languages/udmurt_in_russia.1584431577.txt.gz · Last modified: 2020/03/17 08:52 by ydwine

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