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languages:udmurt_in_russia [2020/03/18 13:29]
ydwine [Learning resources and educational institutions]
languages:udmurt_in_russia [2020/03/18 13:52]
ydwine [History of language education:]
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 ==== History of language education: ==== ==== History of language education: ====
  
-In the 1920's and 1930'​s,​ an increase in Udmurt national consciousness led to the foundation of several Udmurt schools. However, in the following years, these early efforts to establish Udmurt-language education were crushed during the late 1930s, as the main leaders of the fledgling Udmurt national movement were eradicated in the Stalinist purges ((Holland, A., //Trends in Soviet and Post-Soviet Udmurt cultural memory//. Vestnik: The Journal of Russian and Asian Studies, 2014. Retrieved from: http://​www.sras.org/​udmurt_cultural_memory)). In the first years after World War II, translations of schoolbooks to Udmurt were still attested, but from the 1960s, Udmurt-language teaching materials ceased to be produced ((Nikitina, G. A., //Qui est responsable de la préservation des langues mioritaires:​ le cas de la langue Oudmourte.//​ Études Finno-Ougriennes;​ 2013, 45, pp. 1-14.)). This absence of the Udmurt language in education persisted for several decades, until the fall of the Soviet Union. The main mark of a school'​s success became the pupils'​ knowledge attained through the medium of the Russian language. From the 1990s onwards, this attitude changed slightly. Russian legislation provided for a three-tier curriculum, which divided the subjects in a mandatory federal part, a national-regional part mandated by the federal subjects, and a variable part which can be filled in by individual schools ((Васильева,​ Г. Н., //​Национально-региональный компонент в стандарте образования Удмуртской Республики:​ опыт и проблемы//​. Эмиссия,​ 2006. Retrieved from http://​emissia.org/​offline/​2006/​1082.htm)). This national-regional part of the curriculum allowed more room for both the Udmurt government and individual schools to reintroduce education in the Udmurt language and culture in so-called national schools ((Protassova,​ E., Alòs i Font, H., & Bulatova, E., //Education in Udmurt and Chuvash as minority languages of Russia//. InterDisciplines;​ 2014, 5(2), pp.1-33.)). However, a federal education reform in 2007 abolished the national-regional part of the curriculum, which greatly reduced the opportunities regional governments had to implement education in Udmurt ((Zamyatin, K., //​Finno-Ugric languages in Russian education: The changing legal-institutional framework and falling access to native language learning//. Études Finno-Ougriennes,​ 2012, 44, pp. 1-57)).+In the 1920's and 1930'​s,​ an increase in Udmurt national consciousness led to the foundation of several Udmurt schools. However, in the following years, these early efforts to establish Udmurt-language education were crushed during the late 1930s, as the main leaders of the fledgling Udmurt national movement were eradicated in the Stalinist purges ((Holland, A., //Trends in Soviet and Post-Soviet Udmurt cultural memory//. Vestnik: The Journal of Russian and Asian Studies, 2014. Retrieved from: http://​www.sras.org/​udmurt_cultural_memory)). In the first years after World War II, translations of schoolbooks to Udmurt were still attested, but from the 1960s, Udmurt-language teaching materials ceased to be produced ((Nikitina, G. A., //Qui est responsable de la préservation des langues mioritaires:​ le cas de la langue Oudmourte.//​ Études Finno-Ougriennes;​ 2013, 45, pp. 1-14.)). This absence of the Udmurt language in education persisted for several decades, until the fall of the Soviet Union. The main mark of a school'​s success became the pupils'​ knowledge attained through the medium of the Russian language. From the 1990s onwards, this attitude changed slightly. Russian legislation provided for a three-tier curriculum, which divided the subjects in a mandatory federal part, a national-regional part mandated by the federal subjects, and a variable part which can be filled in by individual schools ((Васильева,​ Г. Н., //​Национально-региональный компонент в стандарте образования Удмуртской Республики:​ опыт и проблемы//​. Эмиссия,​ 2006. Retrieved from http://​emissia.org/​offline/​2006/​1082.htm)). This national-regional part of the curriculum allowed more room for both the Udmurt government and individual schools to reintroduce education in the Udmurt language and culture in so-called national schools ((Protassova,​ E., Alòs i Font, H., & Bulatova, E., //Education in Udmurt and Chuvash as minority languages of Russia//. InterDisciplines;​ 2014, 5(2), pp.1-33.)). However, a federal education reform in 2007 abolished the national-regional part of the curriculum, which greatly reduced the opportunities regional governments had to implement education in Udmurt ((Zamyatin, K., //​Finno-Ugric languages in Russian education: The changing legal-institutional framework and falling access to native language learning//. Études Finno-Ougriennes,​ 2012, 44, pp. 1-57)). The [[general_information:​russian_legislation#​Developments 2018|developments of 2018]] made that Udmurt education could no longer be set as a mandatory subject. This led to protest with an open letter and the self-immolation of Udmurt language activist Albert Razin on September 10, 2019 ((Radio Free Europe: Radio Liberty. (2019, October 8). //Dying To Keep A Language Alive: Scholar'​s Suicide Shakes Udmurtia.// Retrieved from: [[https://​www.rferl.org/​a/​russia-udmurtia-language-protest/​30206046.html]].)) ((Aitkhozhina,​ D. (2019, September 12). //​Self-Immolation Highlights Controversy over Cultural Rights in Russia: A national debate on minority cultural rights is the backdrop to the death of an academic in the Russian republic of Udmurtia.// Retrieved from: [[https://​www.hrw.org/​news/​2019/​09/​12/​self-immolation-highlights-controversy-over-cultural-rights-russia]].)).
  
 ==== Legislation of language education ==== ==== Legislation of language education ====
languages/udmurt_in_russia.txt · Last modified: 2020/10/05 11:36 by ydwine

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