User Tools

Site Tools


languages:udmurt_in_russia

Differences

This shows you the differences between two versions of the page.

Link to this comparison view

Both sides previous revision Previous revision
Next revision
Previous revision
Last revision Both sides next revision
languages:udmurt_in_russia [2020/02/18 14:00]
ydwine [Language vitality according to:]
languages:udmurt_in_russia [2020/03/18 14:00]
ydwine [Learning resources and educational institutions]
Line 11: Line 11:
 ==== Linguistic aspects: ===== ==== Linguistic aspects: =====
   * Classification:​ //Uralic// → //​Permian//​. For more information,​ see [[http://​glottolog.org/​resource/​languoid/​id/​udmu1245|udmu1245]] at [[http://​glottolog.org/​|Glottolog]]   * Classification:​ //Uralic// → //​Permian//​. For more information,​ see [[http://​glottolog.org/​resource/​languoid/​id/​udmu1245|udmu1245]] at [[http://​glottolog.org/​|Glottolog]]
-  * Script: Cyrillic+  * Script: Cyrillic. See [[general_information:​russian_legislation#​Legislation concerning Script|Russian legislation concerning script]].
  
 ==== Language standardization ==== ==== Language standardization ====
Line 54: Line 54:
 ==== History of language education: ==== ==== History of language education: ====
  
-In the 1920's and 1930'​s,​ an increase in Udmurt national consciousness led to the foundation of several Udmurt schools. However, in the following years, these early efforts to establish Udmurt-language education were crushed during the late 1930s, as the main leaders of the fledgling Udmurt national movement were eradicated in the Stalinist purges ((Holland, A., //Trends in Soviet and Post-Soviet Udmurt cultural memory//. Vestnik: The Journal of Russian and Asian Studies, 2014. Retrieved from: http://​www.sras.org/​udmurt_cultural_memory)). In the first years after World War II, translations of schoolbooks to Udmurt were still attested, but from the 1960s, Udmurt-language teaching materials ceased to be produced ((Nikitina, G. A., //Qui est responsable de la préservation des langues mioritaires:​ le cas de la langue Oudmourte.//​ Études Finno-Ougriennes;​ 2013, 45, pp. 1-14.)). This absence of the Udmurt language in education persisted for several decades, until the fall of the Soviet Union. The main mark of a school'​s success became the pupils'​ knowledge attained through the medium of the Russian language. From the 1990s onwards, this attitude changed slightly. Russian legislation provided for a three-tier curriculum, which divided the subjects in a mandatory federal part, a national-regional part mandated by the federal subjects, and a variable part which can be filled in by individual schools ((Васильева,​ Г. Н., //​Национально-региональный компонент в стандарте образования Удмуртской Республики:​ опыт и проблемы//​. Эмиссия,​ 2006. Retrieved from http://​emissia.org/​offline/​2006/​1082.htm)). This national-regional part of the curriculum allowed more room for both the Udmurt government and individual schools to reintroduce education in the Udmurt language and culture in so-called national schools ((Protassova,​ E., Alòs i Font, H., & Bulatova, E., //Education in Udmurt and Chuvash as minority languages of Russia//. InterDisciplines;​ 2014, 5(2), pp.1-33.)). However, a federal education reform in 2007 abolished the national-regional part of the curriculum, which greatly reduced the opportunities regional governments had to implement education in Udmurt ((Zamyatin, K., //​Finno-Ugric languages in Russian education: The changing legal-institutional framework and falling access to native language learning//. Études Finno-Ougriennes,​ 2012, 44, pp. 1-57)).+In the 1920's and 1930'​s,​ an increase in Udmurt national consciousness led to the foundation of several Udmurt schools. However, in the following years, these early efforts to establish Udmurt-language education were crushed during the late 1930s, as the main leaders of the fledgling Udmurt national movement were eradicated in the Stalinist purges ((Holland, A., //Trends in Soviet and Post-Soviet Udmurt cultural memory//. Vestnik: The Journal of Russian and Asian Studies, 2014. Retrieved from: http://​www.sras.org/​udmurt_cultural_memory)). In the first years after World War II, translations of schoolbooks to Udmurt were still attested, but from the 1960s, Udmurt-language teaching materials ceased to be produced ((Nikitina, G. A., //Qui est responsable de la préservation des langues mioritaires:​ le cas de la langue Oudmourte.//​ Études Finno-Ougriennes;​ 2013, 45, pp. 1-14.)). This absence of the Udmurt language in education persisted for several decades, until the fall of the Soviet Union. The main mark of a school'​s success became the pupils'​ knowledge attained through the medium of the Russian language. From the 1990s onwards, this attitude changed slightly. Russian legislation provided for a three-tier curriculum, which divided the subjects in a mandatory federal part, a national-regional part mandated by the federal subjects, and a variable part which can be filled in by individual schools ((Васильева,​ Г. Н., //​Национально-региональный компонент в стандарте образования Удмуртской Республики:​ опыт и проблемы//​. Эмиссия,​ 2006. Retrieved from http://​emissia.org/​offline/​2006/​1082.htm)). This national-regional part of the curriculum allowed more room for both the Udmurt government and individual schools to reintroduce education in the Udmurt language and culture in so-called national schools ((Protassova,​ E., Alòs i Font, H., & Bulatova, E., //Education in Udmurt and Chuvash as minority languages of Russia//. InterDisciplines;​ 2014, 5(2), pp.1-33.)). However, a federal education ​[[general_information:​russian_legislation#​Amendment 2007|reform in 2007]] abolished the national-regional part of the curriculum, which greatly reduced the opportunities regional governments had to implement education in Udmurt ((Zamyatin, K., //​Finno-Ugric languages in Russian education: The changing legal-institutional framework and falling access to native language learning//. Études Finno-Ougriennes,​ 2012, 44, pp. 1-57)). The [[general_information:​russian_legislation#​Developments 2018|developments of 2018]] made that Udmurt education could no longer be set as a mandatory subject. This led to protest with an open letter and the self-immolation of Udmurt language activist Albert Razin on September 10, 2019 ((Radio Free Europe: Radio Liberty. (2019, October 8). //Dying To Keep A Language Alive: Scholar'​s Suicide Shakes Udmurtia.// Retrieved from: [[https://​www.rferl.org/​a/​russia-udmurtia-language-protest/​30206046.html]].)) ((Aitkhozhina,​ D. (2019, September 12). //​Self-Immolation Highlights Controversy over Cultural Rights in Russia: A national debate on minority cultural rights is the backdrop to the death of an academic in the Russian republic of Udmurtia.// Retrieved from: [[https://​www.hrw.org/​news/​2019/​09/​12/​self-immolation-highlights-controversy-over-cultural-rights-russia]].)).
  
 ==== Legislation of language education ==== ==== Legislation of language education ====
Line 131: Line 131:
 === Online learning resources === === Online learning resources ===
  
-[[http://​udmurt.info/​udmurt/​courses.htm|Удмуртология]] - Russian-language website where you can take several Udmurt courses.+  * [[http://​udmurt.info/​udmurt/​courses.htm|Удмуртология]] - Russian-language website where you can take several Udmurt courses. 
 +  * [[https://​vk.com/​udmurteveryday|Удмуртский каждый день]] - Social media group on which pictures with phrases in Udmurt and Russian are posted, in order to teach basic Udmurt to non-speakers. 
 +  * [[https://​www.memrise.com/​|Memrise]] - Language learning site, offering a course on Udmurt-English vocabulary (1841 words) 
 +  * [[https://​glosbe.com/​en/​udm|Glosbe]] - Community-moderated online dictionary. 
 +  * [[https://​www.omniglot.com/​language/​numbers/​udmurt.htm|Omniglot]] - numbers
  
-[[https://​vk.com/​udmurteveryday|Удмуртский каждый день]] - Social media group on which pictures with phrases in Udmurt and Russian are posted, in order to teach basic Udmurt to non-speakers. 
- 
-[[https://​www.memrise.com/​|Memrise]] - Language learning site, offering a course on Udmurt-English vocabulary (1841 words) 
- 
-[[https://​glosbe.com/​en/​udm|Glosbe]] Community-moderated online dictionary, which currently contains 1651 words and phrases. 
  
  
languages/udmurt_in_russia.txt · Last modified: 2020/10/05 11:36 by ydwine

Creative Commons License
Mercator's wiki on minority language education by Mercator European Research Centre on Multilingualism and Language Learning
is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
Based on a work at www.mercatorwiki.eu.
Permissions beyond the scope of this license may be available at www.mercator-research.eu.