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languages:udmurt_in_russia [2018/01/25 16:51]
johanneke [Secondary education]
languages:udmurt_in_russia [2020/03/18 14:00]
ydwine [Learning resources and educational institutions]
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-====== Udmurt in the Russian Federation ​======+ 
 +====== Udmurt in Russia ​======
  
 ==== Language designations:​ ==== ==== Language designations:​ ====
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 ==== Language vitality according to: ==== ==== Language vitality according to: ====
-^ [[http://​www.unesco.org/​languages-atlas/​|UNESCO]] ​              ^ [[https://​www.ethnologue.com/​language/​fry/​|Ethnologue]] ​ ^ [[http://​www.endangeredlanguages.com/​lang/​10425|Endangered Languages]] ​ ^+^ [[http://​www.unesco.org/​languages-atlas/​|UNESCO]] ​              ^ [[https://​www.ethnologue.com/​language/​udm/​|Ethnologue]] ​ ^ [[http://​www.endangeredlanguages.com/​lang/​3010|Endangered Languages]] ​ ^
 | {{ :​endangerment:​yellow.png?​nolink | Definitively endangered}} ​ | {{ :​endangerment:​blue.png?​nolink | Developing}} ​         | {{ :​endangerment:​yellow.png?​nolink | Threatened}} ​                      | | {{ :​endangerment:​yellow.png?​nolink | Definitively endangered}} ​ | {{ :​endangerment:​blue.png?​nolink | Developing}} ​         | {{ :​endangerment:​yellow.png?​nolink | Threatened}} ​                      |
 ==== Linguistic aspects: ===== ==== Linguistic aspects: =====
   * Classification:​ //Uralic// → //​Permian//​. For more information,​ see [[http://​glottolog.org/​resource/​languoid/​id/​udmu1245|udmu1245]] at [[http://​glottolog.org/​|Glottolog]]   * Classification:​ //Uralic// → //​Permian//​. For more information,​ see [[http://​glottolog.org/​resource/​languoid/​id/​udmu1245|udmu1245]] at [[http://​glottolog.org/​|Glottolog]]
-  * Script: Cyrillic+  * Script: Cyrillic. See [[general_information:​russian_legislation#​Legislation concerning Script|Russian legislation concerning script]].
  
 ==== Language standardization ==== ==== Language standardization ====
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 ==== History of language education: ==== ==== History of language education: ====
  
-In the 1920's and 1930'​s,​ an increase in Udmurt national consciousness led to the foundation of several Udmurt schools. However, in the following years, these early efforts to establish Udmurt-language education were crushed during the late 1930s, as the main leaders of the fledgling Udmurt national movement were eradicated in the Stalinist purges ((Holland, A., //Trends in Soviet and Post-Soviet Udmurt cultural memory//. Vestnik: The Journal of Russian and Asian Studies, 2014. Retrieved from: http://​www.sras.org/​udmurt_cultural_memory)). In the first years after World War II, translations of schoolbooks to Udmurt were still attested, but from the 1960s, Udmurt-language teaching materials ceased to be produced ((Nikitina, G. A., //Qui est responsable de la préservation des langues mioritaires:​ le cas de la langue Oudmourte.//​ Études Finno-Ougriennes;​ 2013, 45, pp. 1-14.)). This absence of the Udmurt language in education persisted for several decades, until the fall of the Soviet Union. The main mark of a school'​s success became the pupils'​ knowledge attained through the medium of the Russian language. From the 1990s onwards, this attitude changed slightly. Russian legislation provided for a three-tier curriculum, which divided the subjects in a mandatory federal part, a national-regional part mandated by the federal subjects, and a variable part which can be filled in by individual schools ((Васильева,​ Г. Н., //​Национально-региональный компонент в стандарте образования Удмуртской Республики:​ опыт и проблемы//​. Эмиссия,​ 2006. Retrieved from http://​emissia.org/​offline/​2006/​1082.htm)). This national-regional part of the curriculum allowed more room for both the Udmurt government and individual schools to reintroduce education in the Udmurt language and culture in so-called national schools ((Protassova,​ E., Alòs i Font, H., & Bulatova, E., //Education in Udmurt and Chuvash as minority languages of Russia//. InterDisciplines;​ 2014, 5(2), pp.1-33.)). However, a federal education reform in 2007 abolished the national-regional part of the curriculum, which greatly reduced the opportunities regional governments had to implement education in Udmurt ((Zamyatin, K., //​Finno-Ugric languages in Russian education: The changing legal-institutional framework and falling access to native language learning//. Études Finno-Ougriennes,​ 2012, 44, pp. 1-57)).+In the 1920's and 1930'​s,​ an increase in Udmurt national consciousness led to the foundation of several Udmurt schools. However, in the following years, these early efforts to establish Udmurt-language education were crushed during the late 1930s, as the main leaders of the fledgling Udmurt national movement were eradicated in the Stalinist purges ((Holland, A., //Trends in Soviet and Post-Soviet Udmurt cultural memory//. Vestnik: The Journal of Russian and Asian Studies, 2014. Retrieved from: http://​www.sras.org/​udmurt_cultural_memory)). In the first years after World War II, translations of schoolbooks to Udmurt were still attested, but from the 1960s, Udmurt-language teaching materials ceased to be produced ((Nikitina, G. A., //Qui est responsable de la préservation des langues mioritaires:​ le cas de la langue Oudmourte.//​ Études Finno-Ougriennes;​ 2013, 45, pp. 1-14.)). This absence of the Udmurt language in education persisted for several decades, until the fall of the Soviet Union. The main mark of a school'​s success became the pupils'​ knowledge attained through the medium of the Russian language. From the 1990s onwards, this attitude changed slightly. Russian legislation provided for a three-tier curriculum, which divided the subjects in a mandatory federal part, a national-regional part mandated by the federal subjects, and a variable part which can be filled in by individual schools ((Васильева,​ Г. Н., //​Национально-региональный компонент в стандарте образования Удмуртской Республики:​ опыт и проблемы//​. Эмиссия,​ 2006. Retrieved from http://​emissia.org/​offline/​2006/​1082.htm)). This national-regional part of the curriculum allowed more room for both the Udmurt government and individual schools to reintroduce education in the Udmurt language and culture in so-called national schools ((Protassova,​ E., Alòs i Font, H., & Bulatova, E., //Education in Udmurt and Chuvash as minority languages of Russia//. InterDisciplines;​ 2014, 5(2), pp.1-33.)). However, a federal education ​[[general_information:​russian_legislation#​Amendment 2007|reform in 2007]] abolished the national-regional part of the curriculum, which greatly reduced the opportunities regional governments had to implement education in Udmurt ((Zamyatin, K., //​Finno-Ugric languages in Russian education: The changing legal-institutional framework and falling access to native language learning//. Études Finno-Ougriennes,​ 2012, 44, pp. 1-57)). The [[general_information:​russian_legislation#​Developments 2018|developments of 2018]] made that Udmurt education could no longer be set as a mandatory subject. This led to protest with an open letter and the self-immolation of Udmurt language activist Albert Razin on September 10, 2019 ((Radio Free Europe: Radio Liberty. (2019, October 8). //Dying To Keep A Language Alive: Scholar'​s Suicide Shakes Udmurtia.// Retrieved from: [[https://​www.rferl.org/​a/​russia-udmurtia-language-protest/​30206046.html]].)) ((Aitkhozhina,​ D. (2019, September 12). //​Self-Immolation Highlights Controversy over Cultural Rights in Russia: A national debate on minority cultural rights is the backdrop to the death of an academic in the Russian republic of Udmurtia.// Retrieved from: [[https://​www.hrw.org/​news/​2019/​09/​12/​self-immolation-highlights-controversy-over-cultural-rights-russia]].)).
  
 ==== Legislation of language education ==== ==== Legislation of language education ====
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 One experiment was set up in Udmurtia to introduce Udmurt as language of instruction in secondary education. The Kuzebay Gerd School, named after a leader of the Udmurt language movement in the 1920s, was founded in 1999 to support Udmurt language and culture in education, aiming to teach in the Udmurt language. However, responses to this idea were negative, so the school decided not to use Udmurt as medium of instruction. Instead, they offered the language as a subject, like all other '​national schools'​ ((Casen, M., //Les manifestations de l'​identité oudmourte à Iževsk depuis 1985//. Department of Finno-Ugric Studies, INALCO Paris. MA dissertation. 2010.)). Contrary to Udmurts in the Udmurt Republic, Udmurts in Tatarstan do have some opportunity to get secondary education with the Udmurt language as medium of instruction ((Zamyatin, K., //The education reform in Russia and and its impact on teaching of the minority languages: an effect of nation-building?//​ Journal on Ethnopolitics and minority issues in Europe, 2012,11(1), pp. 17-47)). One experiment was set up in Udmurtia to introduce Udmurt as language of instruction in secondary education. The Kuzebay Gerd School, named after a leader of the Udmurt language movement in the 1920s, was founded in 1999 to support Udmurt language and culture in education, aiming to teach in the Udmurt language. However, responses to this idea were negative, so the school decided not to use Udmurt as medium of instruction. Instead, they offered the language as a subject, like all other '​national schools'​ ((Casen, M., //Les manifestations de l'​identité oudmourte à Iževsk depuis 1985//. Department of Finno-Ugric Studies, INALCO Paris. MA dissertation. 2010.)). Contrary to Udmurts in the Udmurt Republic, Udmurts in Tatarstan do have some opportunity to get secondary education with the Udmurt language as medium of instruction ((Zamyatin, K., //The education reform in Russia and and its impact on teaching of the minority languages: an effect of nation-building?//​ Journal on Ethnopolitics and minority issues in Europe, 2012,11(1), pp. 17-47)).
  
-==== Tertiary education ​====+=== Tertiary education ===
  
 The five universities in the Republic of Udmurtia are fully Russian-language,​ except for special subjects related to Udmurt language, culture and literature ((Protassova,​ E., Alòs i Font, H., & Bulatova, E., //Education in Udmurt and Chuvash as minority languages of Russia//. InterDisciplines;​ 2014, 5(2), pp.1-33. )). These subjects are found at the faculty of Udmurt philology of the Udmurt State University, where it is possible to major in Udmurt Studies ((Casen, M., //Les manifestations de l'​identité oudmourte à Iževsk depuis 1985//. Department of Finno-Ugric Studies, INALCO Paris. MA dissertation. 2010.)). In this programme, students have to study the Udmurt language and literature, plus an additional language. Students can choose Russian, English, German, Finnish, and Hungarian as their second language of study. The Udmurt-Russian specialization is also offered as a part-time correspondence course ((Удмуртский Государственный Универстиет. //​Факультет Удмуртской Филологии//​. Retrieved from http://​v4.udsu.ru/​abitur/​fudf)). The five universities in the Republic of Udmurtia are fully Russian-language,​ except for special subjects related to Udmurt language, culture and literature ((Protassova,​ E., Alòs i Font, H., & Bulatova, E., //Education in Udmurt and Chuvash as minority languages of Russia//. InterDisciplines;​ 2014, 5(2), pp.1-33. )). These subjects are found at the faculty of Udmurt philology of the Udmurt State University, where it is possible to major in Udmurt Studies ((Casen, M., //Les manifestations de l'​identité oudmourte à Iževsk depuis 1985//. Department of Finno-Ugric Studies, INALCO Paris. MA dissertation. 2010.)). In this programme, students have to study the Udmurt language and literature, plus an additional language. Students can choose Russian, English, German, Finnish, and Hungarian as their second language of study. The Udmurt-Russian specialization is also offered as a part-time correspondence course ((Удмуртский Государственный Универстиет. //​Факультет Удмуртской Филологии//​. Retrieved from http://​v4.udsu.ru/​abitur/​fudf)).
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-===== Learning resources and educational institutions ​=====+==== Learning resources and educational institutions ====
  
 === Institutions developing learning materials === === Institutions developing learning materials ===
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 === Online learning resources === === Online learning resources ===
  
-[[http://​udmurt.info/​udmurt/​courses.htm|Удмуртология]] - Russian-language website where you can take several Udmurt courses.+  * [[http://​udmurt.info/​udmurt/​courses.htm|Удмуртология]] - Russian-language website where you can take several Udmurt courses. 
 +  * [[https://​vk.com/​udmurteveryday|Удмуртский каждый день]] - Social media group on which pictures with phrases in Udmurt and Russian are posted, in order to teach basic Udmurt to non-speakers. 
 +  * [[https://​www.memrise.com/​|Memrise]] - Language learning site, offering a course on Udmurt-English vocabulary (1841 words) 
 +  * [[https://​glosbe.com/​en/​udm|Glosbe]] - Community-moderated online dictionary. 
 +  * [[https://​www.omniglot.com/​language/​numbers/​udmurt.htm|Omniglot]] - numbers
  
-[[https://​vk.com/​udmurteveryday|Удмуртский каждый день]] - Social media group on which pictures with phrases in Udmurt and Russian are posted, in order to teach basic Udmurt to non-speakers. 
  
-[[https://​www.memrise.com/​|Memrise]] - Language learning site, offering a course on Udmurt-English vocabulary (1841 words) 
  
-[[https://​glosbe.com/​en/​udm|Glosbe]] Community-moderated online dictionary, which currently contains 1651 words and phrases.+----
  
 +=== Mercator'​s Regional Dossier ===
  
  
 +[[http://​www.mercator-research.eu/​fileadmin/​mercator/​dossiers_pdf/​aragonese_in_spain.pdf|{{:​images:​dossier.png?​nolink|}}]][[https://​www.mercator-research.eu/​fileadmin/​mercator/​documents/​regional_dossiers/​Udmurt_in_Russia.pdf|Read more]] in English or [[https://​www.mercator-research.eu/​fileadmin/​mercator/​documents/​regional_dossiers/​udmurt_in_russia_russian.pdf| in Russian]] about Udmurt language education in Mercator'​s Regional Dossier (2019).
  
  
languages/udmurt_in_russia.txt · Last modified: 2020/10/05 11:36 by ydwine

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