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languages:silbo_gomero_in_spain [2020/02/19 11:00]
ydwine [References]
languages:silbo_gomero_in_spain [2020/10/05 10:45]
ydwine [Language vitality according to:]
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 The Silbo Gomero is a cultural manifestation dating from the pre-Hispanic age, inherited from the aboriginal inhabitants of the Canaries who were conquered by the Spanish. Although its relevance in the island decreased until the second half of the 20th century, nowadays, the whistle is a living and useful cultural manifestation,​ which, due to its vitality and large expressive possibilities,​ is on its way to universalization. Nevertheless,​ the results of efforts made by both the institutions and educators still remain to be seen. The Silbo Gomero is a cultural manifestation dating from the pre-Hispanic age, inherited from the aboriginal inhabitants of the Canaries who were conquered by the Spanish. Although its relevance in the island decreased until the second half of the 20th century, nowadays, the whistle is a living and useful cultural manifestation,​ which, due to its vitality and large expressive possibilities,​ is on its way to universalization. Nevertheless,​ the results of efforts made by both the institutions and educators still remain to be seen.
 Certainly, the whistled practised in La Gomera is neither one of those rural symbols of identity that people are often ashamed of, nor a patriotic feature that institutions of power artificially create in order to manipulate citizens; instead, it is a genuine cultural practice, which the Canaries are very proud of, but which still needs more time to give evidence of progress. //​(reference needed)// Certainly, the whistled practised in La Gomera is neither one of those rural symbols of identity that people are often ashamed of, nor a patriotic feature that institutions of power artificially create in order to manipulate citizens; instead, it is a genuine cultural practice, which the Canaries are very proud of, but which still needs more time to give evidence of progress. //​(reference needed)//
 +
 +Listen to the language:
 +  *[[http://​www.yosilbo.com/​portfolio-item/​demostracion-de-silbo-gomero-en-un-colegio/​|Demostración de Silbo gomero realizada en un colegio para Canarias Directo]] by Yo Silbo((Yo Silbo. (n.d.). //​Demostración de Silbo gomero realizada en un colegio para Canarias Directo//. [[http://​www.yosilbo.com/​portfolio-item/​demostracion-de-silbo-gomero-en-un-colegio]].))
 +
 +Videos on the language:
 +  *[[https://​www.youtube.com/​watch?​v=C0CIRCjoICA|Sylbo,​ The Last Speakers of the Lost Whistling Language]] by TIME((TIME. (2013, May 21). //Sylbo, The Last Speakers of the Lost Whistling Language//. [[https://​www.youtube.com/​watch?​v=C0CIRCjoICA]].))
 +  *[[https://​www.youtube.com/​watch?​v=PgEmSb0cKBg|Whistled language of the island of La Gomera (Canary Islands), the Silbo Gomero]] by UNESCO((UNESCO. (2009, September 25). //Whistled language of the island of La Gomera (Canary Islands), the Silbo Gomero//. [[https://​www.youtube.com/​watch?​v=PgEmSb0cKBg]].))
  
 ==== Language vitality according to: ==== ==== Language vitality according to: ====
  
  
-^ [[http://​www.unesco.org/​languages-atlas/​|UNESCO*]] ^ [[https://www.ethnologue.com/​language/​spa/​|Ethnologue]] ^ [[http://www.endangeredlanguages.com|Endangered Languages]] ^+^ [[http://​www.unesco.org/​languages-atlas/​|UNESCO]] ^  [[http://www.endangeredlanguages.com|Endangered Languages]]   [[https://glottolog.org/|Glottolog]]  ^
 |  n.a.  |  n.a.  |  n.a.  | |  n.a.  |  n.a.  |  n.a.  |
 ==== Linguistic aspects: ===== ==== Linguistic aspects: =====
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 Silbo Gomero is a whistled language used by the inhabitants of La Gomera, an island located in the west coast of Africa, in the Spanish Canary Islands. ​ Silbo Gomero is a whistled language used by the inhabitants of La Gomera, an island located in the west coast of Africa, in the Spanish Canary Islands. ​
 It is considered the only whistled language in the world that is fully developed and practised by a large community. Certainly, it is estimated to be spoken by more than 22,000 inhabitants. ​ It is considered the only whistled language in the world that is fully developed and practised by a large community. Certainly, it is estimated to be spoken by more than 22,000 inhabitants. ​
-Initially, it was used to solve the serious problems of communication suffered by the inhabitants caused by the difficult orography of the island, which is formed by deep valleys and rifts. It was also employed during the activities of shepherding.((S.Garcia. //Silbo Gomero//. (2015, December 18). [[http://​leyendasmirdalirs.com/​tag/​silbo-gomero/​]]))+Initially, it was used to solve the serious problems of communication suffered by the inhabitants caused by the difficult orography of the island, which is formed by deep valleys and rifts. It was also employed during the activities of shepherding.((S.Garcia. (2015, December 18). //Silbo Gomero//. [[http://​leyendasmirdalirs.com/​tag/​silbo-gomero/​]]))
  
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 ====== Education of the language ====== ====== Education of the language ======
 ===== History of language education: ===== ===== History of language education: =====
-Silbo Gomero is understood and practiced by the vast majority of all islanders, especially the elderly. Today, like centuries ago, the whistled language was used to transmit news, announce celebrations,​ funerals, pilgrimages,​ weddings and baptisms. It is not meant to communicate with the intimate, instead, it is for the public, transmitted out loud, and heard by everyone on the island. It is not a language itself, since the whistled tones reproduce the language talked by its users, in this case, Spanish. However, it has its own linguistic characteristics:​ the language contains two vowels and four consonants, each vowel or consonant matched by a whistling sound. Besides, whistles can be distinguished by pitch and by whether they are interrupted or continuous. +Silbo Gomero is understood and practiced by the vast majority of all islanders, especially the elderly. Today, like centuries ago, the whistled language was used to transmit news, announce celebrations,​ funerals, pilgrimages,​ weddings and baptisms. It is not meant to communicate with the intimate, instead, it is for the public, transmitted out loud, and heard by everyone on the island. It is not a language itself, since the whistled tones reproduce the language talked by its users, in this case, Spanish. However, it has its own linguistic characteristics:​ the language contains two vowels and four consonants, each vowel or consonant matched by a whistling sound.((UNESCO. (n.d.). //Whistled language of the island of La Gomera (Canary Islands), the Silbo Gomero//. Retrieved February 19, 2020, from [[https://​ich.unesco.org/​en/​RL/​whistled-language-of-the-island-of-la-gomera-canary-islands-the-silbo-gomero-00172]].)) 
-(( Consejera de Educación, Universidades,​ Cultura y Deportes// Aspectos lingüísticos// ​(n.d.). [[http://​www.gobiernodecanarias.org/​cultura/​silbogomero/​aspectoslinguisticos/​]] [accessed 2020, February 19].)) + Besides, whistles can be distinguished by pitch and by whether they are interrupted or continuous. 
 +(( Consejera de Educación, Universidades,​ Cultura y Deportes(n.d.). ​// Aspectos lingüísticos//​. Retrieved February 19, 2020, from  ​[[http://​www.gobiernodecanarias.org/​cultura/​silbogomero/​aspectoslinguisticos/​]].)) ​
  
-The use of the whistle declined gradually in La Gomera until the end of the 1970s, when local and cultural entities of the island started promoting its revitalization.(( Victoria González Ares//El Silbo Gomero en el sistema educativo canario// ​(2016, May 18). [[https://​www.gomeranoticias.com/​2016/​05/​18/​silbo-gomero-sistema-educativo-canario/​]] [accessed on 2020, February 19].)) By the end of the 20th century it became a compulsory subject in primary education. On July 26, 1997, the Parliament of the Canary Islands approved the proposal to introduce Silbo Gomero as a subject in schools. Later, in 1998, the first technical committee for Silbo Gomero, which included linguists and didactics from the University of La Laguna, instructors of the whistled language, and the president of the AMPAS federation of La Gomera. The committee'​s main task was to supervise the development of didactic materials, and regulate of the contents.  +The use of the whistle declined gradually in La Gomera until the end of the 1970s, when local and cultural entities of the island started promoting its revitalization.(( Victoria González Ares. (2016, May 18). //El Silbo Gomero en el sistema educativo canario//​. ​Retrieved February 19, 2020, from [[https://​www.gomeranoticias.com/​2016/​05/​18/​silbo-gomero-sistema-educativo-canario/​]].)) By the end of the 20th century it became a compulsory subject in primary education. On July 26, 1997, the Parliament of the Canary Islands approved the proposal to introduce Silbo Gomero as a subject in schools. Later, in 1998, the first technical committee for Silbo Gomero, which included linguists and didactics from the University of La Laguna, instructors of the whistled language, and the president of the AMPAS federation of La Gomera. The committee'​s main task was to supervise the development of didactic materials, and regulate of the contents.  
-Finally, since July 1999, Silbo Gomero is taught in schools so to guarantee that knowledge of the language is transmitted to new generations.((UNESCO committee//​Decision of the Intergovernmental Committee: 4.COM 13.71// ​(2019, Oct). [[https://​ich.unesco.org/​en/​decisions/​4.COM/​13.71]] [accessed 2020, February 19].))+Finally, since July 1999, Silbo Gomero is taught in schools so to guarantee that knowledge of the language is transmitted to new generations.((UNESCO committee. (2019, October). ​//Decision of the Intergovernmental Committee: 4.COM 13.71//​. ​Retrieved February 19, 2020, from [[https://​ich.unesco.org/​en/​decisions/​4.COM/​13.71]].))
  
 ===== Legislation of language education: ===== ===== Legislation of language education: =====
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   * On July 26, 1997, the Parliament of the Canary Islands passed a Non-Law Proposition requesting the Government of the Canary Islands to include the whistle of La Gomera in the education system of the island.   * On July 26, 1997, the Parliament of the Canary Islands passed a Non-Law Proposition requesting the Government of the Canary Islands to include the whistle of La Gomera in the education system of the island.
   * In addition, the Law 4/1999 from March 15th (the Historic Patrimony of the Canary Islands) defines Silbo Gomero as part of the ethnographic heritage of the Canary Islands. ​   * In addition, the Law 4/1999 from March 15th (the Historic Patrimony of the Canary Islands) defines Silbo Gomero as part of the ethnographic heritage of the Canary Islands. ​
-  * Law 4/1999 gave rise to order 1118/2001, which defined the //​Regulation of the Historic Heritage Council of the Canary Islands//. This council has several functions, including the raising to the Public Administration of the Autonomous Community of the Canaries of a policy for the elaboration of a plan of conservation of the historical heritage(( Consejera de Educación, Universidades,​ Cultura y Deportes//​Legislación// ​(n.d.). [[http://​www.gobiernodecanarias.org/​cultura/​silbogomero/​normativalegal/​]] [accessed on 19 February 2020].))+  * Law 4/1999 gave rise to order 1118/2001, which defined the //​Regulation of the Historic Heritage Council of the Canary Islands//. This council has several functions, including the raising to the Public Administration of the Autonomous Community of the Canaries of a policy for the elaboration of a plan of conservation of the historical heritage(( Consejera de Educación, Universidades,​ Cultura y Deportes(n.d.). ​//​Legislación//​. Retrieved February 19, 2020, from  ​[[http://​www.gobiernodecanarias.org/​cultura/​silbogomero/​normativalegal/​]].)).
 ==== UNESCO legislation:​ ==== ==== UNESCO legislation:​ ====
-On September 30, 2009,  Silbo Gomero was included in the UNESCO’s Representative List of Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity((UNESCO committee//​Decision of the Intergovernmental Committee: 4.COM 13.71// ​(2019, Oct). [[https://​ich.unesco.org/​en/​decisions/​4.COM/​13.71]] [accessed 2020, February 19].)), which requires the commitment of the State to put into practice specific protection plans. In addition, the Silbo Gomero may be provided with financial assistance from a fund created for that purpose.+On September 30, 2009,  Silbo Gomero was included in the UNESCO’s Representative List of Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity((UNESCO committee. (2019, October). ​//Decision of the Intergovernmental Committee: 4.COM 13.71//​. ​Retrieved February 19, 2020, from [[https://​ich.unesco.org/​en/​decisions/​4.COM/​13.71]].)),​ which requires the commitment of the State to put into practice specific protection plans. In addition, the Silbo Gomero may be provided with financial assistance from a fund created for that purpose.
  
 ===== Support structure ===== ===== Support structure =====
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 All schools, both primary and secondary, on Gomera teach Silbo Gomero during the hours allotted to Spanish Language and Literature, and Foreign languages. Students practice the language during high school and after ten years they take a whole course on the whistled language. //​(reference needed)// All schools, both primary and secondary, on Gomera teach Silbo Gomero during the hours allotted to Spanish Language and Literature, and Foreign languages. Students practice the language during high school and after ten years they take a whole course on the whistled language. //​(reference needed)//
  
-In 2010, the inter-island council of La Gomera and the rector of the University of La Laguna (ULL) signed an agreement for the creation of curriculum oriented towards the study and spread of the Silbo Gomero(( EUROPA PRESS// Una cátedra de la Universidad de La Laguna permitirá ampliar estudios y divulgar el Silbo gomero// ​(2010December 22). [[https://​www.20minutos.es/​noticia/​911066/​0/​]] [accessed 2020, February 19].)). This agreement established an annual activities program for studying the whistled language. (( GomeraActualidad.com//​ La Universidad de La Laguna celebra un curso sobre el Silbo Gomero// ​(2019June 3). [[http://​www.gomeraactualidad.com/​articulo/​la-gomera/​universidad-laguna-celebra-curso-silbo-gomero/​20190603125113024635.html]] [accessed 2020, February 19].)).+In 2010, the inter-island council of La Gomera and the rector of the University of La Laguna (ULL) signed an agreement for the creation of curriculum oriented towards the study and spread of the Silbo Gomero(( EUROPA PRESS. (2010, December 22). // Una cátedra de la Universidad de La Laguna permitirá ampliar estudios y divulgar el Silbo gomero//. Retrieved February 192020, from [[https://​www.20minutos.es/​noticia/​911066/​0/​]].)). This agreement established an annual activities program for studying the whistled language. (( GomeraActualidad.com. (2019, June 3). // La Universidad de La Laguna celebra un curso sobre el Silbo Gomero// ​Retrieved February 192020, from [[http://​www.gomeraactualidad.com/​articulo/​la-gomera/​universidad-laguna-celebra-curso-silbo-gomero/​20190603125113024635.html]].)).
  
 Currently all educational institutions in the Canaray Islands aim to introduce learning Silbo Gomero. During a meeting held in February 2017, the Minister of Sociocultural Policy, Rosa Elena Garcia, stated that various strategies to create room for learning Silbo Gomero were being evaluated. Currently all educational institutions in the Canaray Islands aim to introduce learning Silbo Gomero. During a meeting held in February 2017, the Minister of Sociocultural Policy, Rosa Elena Garcia, stated that various strategies to create room for learning Silbo Gomero were being evaluated.
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- 
-===== References ===== 
-  - TIME (2013, May 21). Sylbo, [[https://​www.youtube.com/​watch?​v=C0CIRCjoICA|The Last Speakers of the Lost Whistling Language]]. [Video File] 
-  - UNESCO (2009, September 25). [[https://​www.youtube.com/​watch?​v=PgEmSb0cKBg|Whistled language of the island of La Gomera (Canary Islands), the Silbo Gomero]] [Video File]. ​ 
-   - Universidad de la Laguna: Institución (2010) [[https://​www.ull.es/​portal/​noticias/​el-cabildo-de-la-gomera-y-la-ull-firman-un-convenio-de-colaboracion-para-impulsar-las-energias-limpias-en-la-isla/​|El Cabildo de La Gomera y la ULL firman un convenio de colaboración para impulsar las energías limpias en la isla]]. 
-  - La Opinión (2017, Frebruary 23). [[http://​www.laopinion.es/​canarias/​2017/​02/​23/​silbo-gomero-canarias/​751753.html ​ |Silbo gomero para toda Canarias]]. La Opinión de Tenerife. 
- 
  
  
languages/silbo_gomero_in_spain.txt · Last modified: 2020/10/05 10:45 by ydwine

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