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languages:saterfrisian_in_germany [2020/03/25 08:26]
ydwine [Language Area]
languages:saterfrisian_in_germany [2020/10/21 13:35] (current)
ydwine [European legislation]
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 ==== Language vitality according to: ==== ==== Language vitality according to: ====
-^ [[http://​www.unesco.org/​languages-atlas/​|UNESCO]] ​ ^ [[https://www.ethnologue.com/language/​stq/|Ethnologue]]  ^ [[http://www.endangeredlanguages.com/lang/3052|Endangered Languages]]  ^ + [[http://​www.unesco.org/​languages-atlas/​|UNESCO]] ​ ^  [[http://www.endangeredlanguages.com/lang/3052|Endangered Languages]]  ^  [[https://glottolog.org/resource/languoid/​id/​sate1242|Glottolog]]  ^ 
-| {{ :​endangerment:​orange.png?​nolink |Severely endangered}} ​                        ​| {{ :​endangerment:​red.png?nolink |Moribund ​}}                                                    | {{ :​endangerment:​yellow.png?nolink |threatened}}                                         ​|+ {{:​endangerment:​orange.png?​nolink|Severely endangered}} ​                                 ​{{:​endangerment:​yellow.png?​nolink|threatened}}   {{:​endangerment:​orange.png?​nolink|Shifting}}                                        ​
 ==== Linguistic aspects: ===== ==== Linguistic aspects: =====
   * Classification:​ Indo-European → Germanic. For more information,​ see [[http://​glottolog.org/​resource/​languoid/​id/​sate1242|sate1242]] at [[http://​glottolog.org/​|Glottolog]]   * Classification:​ Indo-European → Germanic. For more information,​ see [[http://​glottolog.org/​resource/​languoid/​id/​sate1242|sate1242]] at [[http://​glottolog.org/​|Glottolog]]
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 {{https://​www.mercator-research.eu/​wiki/​_media/​languages:​saterfriesisch.png}} {{https://​www.mercator-research.eu/​wiki/​_media/​languages:​saterfriesisch.png}}
-<​sub>​The map shows the location of the Saterland. On the left it is marked in grey and on the right is shown in more detail within the district of Cloppenburg.((Heeringa,​ W. et. al (2015), //​Cross-Linguistic Vowel Variation in Saterland: Saterland Frisian, Low German, and High German//, [[http://​wjheeringa.nl/​papers/​icphs15b.pdf|Cross-Linguistic Vowel Variation in Saterland]],​ [last accessed 10-12-2017].))</​sub>​+<​sub>​The map shows the location of the Saterland. On the left it is marked in grey and on the right is shown in more detail within the district of Cloppenburg.((Heeringa,​ W. et. al (2015), //​Cross-Linguistic Vowel Variation in Saterland: Saterland Frisian, Low German, and High German//, [[http://​wjheeringa.nl/​papers/​icphs15b.pdf|Cross-Linguistic Vowel Variation in Saterland]],​ [last accessed 10-12-2017].))</​sub> ​
  
  
-\\ Sater Frisian is the only variety of East Frisian alive today. ((Heeringa, W. et. al (2015), //​Cross-Linguistic Vowel Variation in Saterland: Saterland Frisian, Low German, and High German//, [[http://​wjheeringa.nl/​papers/​icphs15b.pdf|Cross-Linguistic Vowel Variation in Saterland]],​ [last accessed 10-12-2017].)) ​ ((Fort, Marron (2000) //Das Neue Testament und die Psalmen in der osterlauwersfriesischen Ursprache des Saterlandes,​ Frieslands, Butjadingens,​ Ostfrieslands und der Groninger Ommelanden//,​ [[http://​oops.uni-oldenburg.de/​620/​1/​653.pdf|Das neue Testament und die Psalmen]], [last accessed 10-12-2017])) It was discussed whether Sater Frisian is a Frisian dialect or an own language because of its little number of speakers nowadays. Furthermore,​ researchers were unsure if it then belonged to the groups of Frisian or German dialects. ((Stellmacher,​ Dieter (1993), //Das Saterfriesische - eine Sprache in Niedersachsen?//​ in Zeitschrift für Dialektologie und Linguistik, Franz Steiner Verlag, pp. 280-91 [[http://​www.jstor.org/​stable/​pdf/​40503855.pdf?​seq=1#​page_scan_tab_contents|Das Saterfriesische]],​ [last accessed 10-12-2017].)) +\\ Sater Frisian is one of the three Frisian languages alongside West Frisian and North Frisian. ​Sater Frisian is the only variety of East Frisian alive today. ((Heeringa, W. et. al (2015), //​Cross-Linguistic Vowel Variation in Saterland: Saterland Frisian, Low German, and High German//, [[http://​wjheeringa.nl/​papers/​icphs15b.pdf|Cross-Linguistic Vowel Variation in Saterland]],​ [last accessed 10-12-2017].)) ​ ((Fort, Marron (2000) //Das Neue Testament und die Psalmen in der osterlauwersfriesischen Ursprache des Saterlandes,​ Frieslands, Butjadingens,​ Ostfrieslands und der Groninger Ommelanden//,​ [[http://​oops.uni-oldenburg.de/​620/​1/​653.pdf|Das neue Testament und die Psalmen]], [last accessed 10-12-2017])) It was discussed whether Sater Frisian is a Frisian dialect or an own language because of its little number of speakers nowadays. Furthermore,​ researchers were unsure if it then belonged to the groups of Frisian or German dialects. ((Stellmacher,​ Dieter (1993), //Das Saterfriesische - eine Sprache in Niedersachsen?//​ in Zeitschrift für Dialektologie und Linguistik, Franz Steiner Verlag, pp. 280-91 [[http://​www.jstor.org/​stable/​pdf/​40503855.pdf?​seq=1#​page_scan_tab_contents|Das Saterfriesische]],​ [last accessed 10-12-2017].))It is now recognised as a minority language. The four main villages where it is spoken have mutually intelligible dialects. ((World Heritage Encyclopedia,​ //Saterland Frisian Language// Germany, [[http://​www.gutenberg.us/​articles/​eng/​saterland_frisian_language|World Heritage Encyclopedia]],​ [last accessed 10-12-2017].)) ((European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages, //​Application of the Charter in Germany, 5th monitoring circle// (2014) pp. 40-45 [[https://​rm.coe.int/​16806d8829|Application of the Charter in Germany]], [(last accessed 10-12-2017])) 
-However, it is now recognised as a minority language. The four main villages where it is spoken have mutually intelligible dialects. ((World Heritage Encyclopedia,​ //Saterland Frisian Language// Germany, [[http://​www.gutenberg.us/​articles/​eng/​saterland_frisian_language|World Heritage Encyclopedia]],​ [last accessed 10-12-2017].)) ((European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages, //​Application of the Charter in Germany, 5th monitoring circle// (2014) pp. 40-45 [[https://​rm.coe.int/​16806d8829|Application of the Charter in Germany]], [(last accessed 10-12-2017]))+ 
 +{{ :​languages:​frisian_languages_in_europe.svg.png?​600 |}} 
 +<sub> Map showing West-Frisian (purple), East Frisian (light blue) and North Frisian (dark blue) ((ArnoldPlaton. (2013) //Frisian languages in Europe.svg//​ Creative Commons: CC BY-SA 3.0)) </​sub>​ 
  
  
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 ===== History of language education: ===== ===== History of language education: =====
  
-The Saterland is known as the smallest "​language island"​ in Europe according to the Guinness Book of Records from 1991. ((Gemeinde Saterland, [[http://​www.saterland.de/​kultur-freizeit/​|Saterfriesische Sprache]], [last accessed 10-12-2017].))+The Saterland is known as the smallest "​language island"​ in Europe according to the Guinness Book of Records from 1991.((Gemeinde Saterland, [[http://​www.saterland.de/​kultur-freizeit/​|Saterfriesische Sprache]], [last accessed 10-12-2017].))
 In 1996 it was reported that Sater Frisian was neither the language used for administration nor in church. Only two hours a week were offered for teaching in primary school. There were no audiovisual teaching materials available. ((Wilts, Ommo and Fort, Marron (1996), //​Nordfriesland und Saterland: Friesisch zwischen Meer Und Moor//, (Brüssel: Europäisches Büro für Sprachminderheiten),​ pp.28-48)) However, this was already an improvement from 1988, when Sater Frisian was not present in schools at all, although people would have supported it. ((Martinen, Hark et. al, (1988) //The North Frisian Language in Primary Education in North Frisia, Federal Republic of Germany: Die Nordfriesische Sprache im Unterricht Der Grundschulen in Nordfriesland//,​ Bundesrepublik Deutschland,​ Ljouwert, Leeuwarden: Fryske Akademy.)) In 1996 it was reported that Sater Frisian was neither the language used for administration nor in church. Only two hours a week were offered for teaching in primary school. There were no audiovisual teaching materials available. ((Wilts, Ommo and Fort, Marron (1996), //​Nordfriesland und Saterland: Friesisch zwischen Meer Und Moor//, (Brüssel: Europäisches Büro für Sprachminderheiten),​ pp.28-48)) However, this was already an improvement from 1988, when Sater Frisian was not present in schools at all, although people would have supported it. ((Martinen, Hark et. al, (1988) //The North Frisian Language in Primary Education in North Frisia, Federal Republic of Germany: Die Nordfriesische Sprache im Unterricht Der Grundschulen in Nordfriesland//,​ Bundesrepublik Deutschland,​ Ljouwert, Leeuwarden: Fryske Akademy.))
  
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 It encourages the use of Sater Frisian in pre-school, primary school, secondary and higher education. It is not mentioned if the teachers are allowed to use Sater Frisian as the language of instruction. ((European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages, //​Application of the Charter in Germany, 5th monitoring circle// (2014) pp. 40-45 [[https://​rm.coe.int/​16806d8829|Application of the Charter in Germany]], [(last accessed 10-12-2017])) It encourages the use of Sater Frisian in pre-school, primary school, secondary and higher education. It is not mentioned if the teachers are allowed to use Sater Frisian as the language of instruction. ((European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages, //​Application of the Charter in Germany, 5th monitoring circle// (2014) pp. 40-45 [[https://​rm.coe.int/​16806d8829|Application of the Charter in Germany]], [(last accessed 10-12-2017]))
-In the [[general_information:​glossary_of_terms|European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages]] ​from 2014 several important aspects were mentioned:+In the report ​from 2014 several important aspects were mentioned:
  
   * Sater Frisian should be implemented in pre-school education, however, in which manner is to be decided by local authorities   * Sater Frisian should be implemented in pre-school education, however, in which manner is to be decided by local authorities
   * in comparison to the 4th report, the Land authorities do not see the need to have Sater Frisian taught in pre-primary school (Kindergarten)   * in comparison to the 4th report, the Land authorities do not see the need to have Sater Frisian taught in pre-primary school (Kindergarten)
   * a course in Sater Frisian has been offered in higher education at the University of Oldenburg since 2009   * a course in Sater Frisian has been offered in higher education at the University of Oldenburg since 2009
-  * 2011 a teaching program for Low German and Sater Frisian was added to the program of the University of Oldenburg+  * in 2011a teaching program for Low German and Sater Frisian was added to the program of the University of Oldenburg
   * there is a need for a policy which encourages more schools to teach Sater Frisian((European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages, //​Application of the Charter in Germany, 5th monitoring circle// (2014) pp. 40-45 [[https://​rm.coe.int/​16806d8829|Application of the Charter in Germany]], [(last accessed 10-12-2017]))   * there is a need for a policy which encourages more schools to teach Sater Frisian((European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages, //​Application of the Charter in Germany, 5th monitoring circle// (2014) pp. 40-45 [[https://​rm.coe.int/​16806d8829|Application of the Charter in Germany]], [(last accessed 10-12-2017]))
  
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 Before the teacher training started to be financially supported in 2010, the Saterland Association called "​Seelter Buund" tried to incorporate Sater Frisian in (pre-)primary schools. This was mostly done by voluntary workers. They have been offering courses for adults as well. Before the teacher training started to be financially supported in 2010, the Saterland Association called "​Seelter Buund" tried to incorporate Sater Frisian in (pre-)primary schools. This was mostly done by voluntary workers. They have been offering courses for adults as well.
 Since 2010 the focus was shifted to developing teaching materials and training teachers. Furthermore,​ the whole region is doing their best in supporting the model project. Another aim is to spread awareness of the language and encourage more people to actively speak it. ((Gemeinde Saterland, [[http://​www.saterland.de/​kultur-freizeit/​|Saterfriesische Sprache]], [last accessed 10-12-2017].)) Since 2010 the focus was shifted to developing teaching materials and training teachers. Furthermore,​ the whole region is doing their best in supporting the model project. Another aim is to spread awareness of the language and encourage more people to actively speak it. ((Gemeinde Saterland, [[http://​www.saterland.de/​kultur-freizeit/​|Saterfriesische Sprache]], [last accessed 10-12-2017].))
 +
 +----
  
  
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 ===== Education presence ===== ===== Education presence =====
  
-So far there are only two so-called Sater Frisian schools. Until now, the schools can decide themselves which subjects they want to teach in Sater Frisian. The //​Landesschulbehörde zur Förderung der Sprachbegegnung und des Spracherwerbs//​ provides 265 hours per school ​year for teaching the minority language. +==== Pre-school education ​====
-In primary schools, it is part of the mandatory subjects whereas in secondary ​education ​it is optional. Sater Frisian is also used in school projects, theatre productions or other kinds of public school events. +
-There is no research done yet on how successful the project is. ((Niedersächsisches Kultusministerium (2014), //​„Plattdeutsche und Saterfriesische Schule“- Acht weitere Schulen in Niedersachsen ausgezeichnet//​ [[http://​www.mk.niedersachsen.de/​startseite/​aktuelles/​presseinformationen/​plattdeutsche-und-saterfriesische-schule--acht-weitere-schulen-in-niedersachsen-ausgezeichnet-130200.html|Plattdeutsche und Saterfriesische Schule]], [last accessed 10-12-2017].)) +
-   +
-   +
- +
  
-===== Online learning resources =====+Since 1995, the //Seelter Buund// has started a project to include Sater Frisian in nursery schools. Now, there are five //​Bäidenstuune//,​ nursery schools, where Sater Frisian is given by volunteers;​ 
 +  * St. Jakobus-Bäidenstuun in //​Roomelse//,​ Ramsloh 
 +  * Pusteblume in //​Roomelse//,​ Ramsloh 
 +  * St. Georg in //​Strukelje//,​ Strücklingen 
 +  * Unterm Regenbogen in //​Skäddel//,​ Scharrel 
 +  * St. Marien in //​Seedelsbierich//,​ Sedelsberg
  
-[[https://de.glosbe.com/stq/de|The Sater Frisian - German dictionary]]+Each group has around thirty children attending, and in 2011, there were 140 children who had Sater Frisian in nursery school. There is a project to train more people to include Sater Frisian in nursery schools. ((Wikiwand. (n.d.). //Seeltersk in dän Bäidenstuun//​. Retrieved March 25, 2020, from [[https://www.wikiwand.com/stq/Seeltersk_in_d%C3%A4n_B%C3%A4idenstuun]].)).
  
-[[http://​seelter.16mb.com/​|A collection of Sater Frisian text and general information]]+==== Primary education ====
  
-[[http://www.saterland.de/portal/meldungen/pressebericht-10-2016-sprache-lebendig-machen-spielerisch-saterfriesisch-lernen-mit-wimmelspiel-app-900000129-22001.html|"​Wimmelspiel"​]] app for iOS and Android was created for 3 to 6 year old children as well as for adults to start learning Sater Frisian+Since 1996, Sater Frisian is included in all primary schools of the municipaltiy. Children can attend one hour of Sater Frisian as a voluntary subject. In 2011, 150 children attended Stater Frisian class.((Wikiwand. (n.d.). //Seeltersk an do Skoulen//. Retrieved March 25, 2020, from [[https://www.wikiwand.com/stq/​Seeltersk_an_do_Skoulen]].)) The primary schools that offer Stater Frisian are: 
 +  * Gruundskoule in //​Roomelse//,​ Ramsloh 
 +  * Litje Skoule in //Skäddel//, Scharrel 
 +  * Marien-Skoule in //​Strukelje//,​ Strücklingen 
 +  * Astrid-Líndgren-Skoule in //​Seedelsbierich//,​ Sedelsberg
  
 +Schools can decide themselves which subjects they want to teach in Sater Frisian. The //​Landesschulbehörde zur Förderung der Sprachbegegnung und des Spracherwerbs//​ provides 265 hours per school year for teaching the minority language.
 +Sater Frisian is also used in school projects, theatre productions or other kinds of public school events.((Niedersächsisches Kultusministerium (2014), //​„Plattdeutsche und Saterfriesische Schule“- Acht weitere Schulen in Niedersachsen ausgezeichnet//​ [[http://​www.mk.niedersachsen.de/​startseite/​aktuelles/​presseinformationen/​plattdeutsche-und-saterfriesische-schule--acht-weitere-schulen-in-niedersachsen-ausgezeichnet-130200.html]],​ [last accessed 10-12-2017].))((Mikulski,​ T. (2015). //Schüler des LSG-Wahlkurses „Saterfriesisch“ drehen in Scharrel.// Retrieved from [[https://​www.lsg-ramsloh.de/​index.php/​nachrichten-aus-der-schule/​114-presseberichte/​587-schueler-des-lsg-wahlkurses-saterfriesisch-drehen-in-scharrel.html]].))
 +
 +In 2010, a project //Seeltersk an do Skoulen in Seelterlound//​ (Sater Frisian at the schools in Saterland) was initiated. This strives for all primary school children to have the choice to have Sater Frisian as language of instruction except for the subjects of German and English, or to have the one hour subject Sater Frisian. For this project, teacher training in Sater Frisian is the first step, which is funded by the //​Niedersächsische Kultusministerium//​ and the //​Oldenburgische Landschaft//,​ //​Universität Oldenburg// and the //Seelter Buund.// ((Wikiwand. (n.d.). //Seeltersk an do Skoulen//. Retrieved March 25, 2020, from [[https://​www.wikiwand.com/​stq/​Seeltersk_an_do_Skoulen]].)).
 +
 +==== Secondary education ====
 +
 +For secondary education, Sater Frisian is offered as elective subject:
 +
 +    * Schulzentrum Saterland in //​Roomelse//,​ Ramsloh: offers Sater Frisian as voluntary subject at the Realschüle,​ but not at the Hauptschüle((Wikiwand. (n.d.). //Seeltersk an do Skoulen//. Retrieved March 25, 2020, from [[https://​www.wikiwand.com/​stq/​Seeltersk_an_do_Skoulen]].))
 +    * Laurentius-Siemer-Gymnasium in //​Roomelse//,​ Ramsloh: offers an elective Sater Frisian course ((Mikulski, T. (2015). //Schüler des LSG-Wahlkurses „Saterfriesisch“ drehen in Scharrel.// Retrieved from [[https://​www.lsg-ramsloh.de/​index.php/​nachrichten-aus-der-schule/​114-presseberichte/​587-schueler-des-lsg-wahlkurses-saterfriesisch-drehen-in-scharrel.html]].))
 +
 +==== Tertiary education ====
 +
 +At the [[https://​uol.de/​germanistik/​niederdeutsch|University of Oldenburg]],​ Sater Frisian is offered as a course within the Germanic department.
  
 ---- ----
 +===== Learning resources =====
  
 +==== Organisations ====
 +
 +  * [[https://​www.minderheitensekretariat.de/​minderheitenrat/​seelter-buund-der-saterfriesen-und-frasche-raedj-friesenrat-sektion-nord|Seelter Buund]]
 +  * [[http://​www.friesenrat.de/​|
 +Frasche Rädj/​Friesenrat]]
 +==== Online resources ====
 +  * [[http://​www.stuuns.com/​seelterfraeisk-lere/​|Seelterfräisk lere]] collection of learning materials
 +  * [[http://​www.saterfriesisches-wörterbuch.de/​|Saterfriesisches wörterbuch]] dictionary Sater Frisian <-> German
 +  * [[https://​de.glosbe.com/​stq/​de|The Sater Frisian - German dictionary]]
 +  * [[http://​www.saterland.de/​portal/​meldungen/​pressebericht-10-2016-sprache-lebendig-machen-spielerisch-saterfriesisch-lernen-mit-wimmelspiel-app-900000129-22001.html|Wimmelspiel]]:​ app for iOS and Android was created for 3 to 6 year old children as well as for adults to start learning Sater Frisian
 +  * [[https://​www.saterland.de/​portal/​seiten/​saterfriesische-sprache-900000015-22001.html|kleine Saterfriesen]]:​ app for iOS and Android for 3-6 year old children for learning the language
 +
 +
 +----
  
-====== Mercator'​s Regional Dossier: ====== 
  
-A Mercator'​s Regional Dossier is not yet available. 
  
  
  
languages/saterfrisian_in_germany.1585121176.txt.gz · Last modified: 2020/03/25 08:26 by ydwine

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