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languages:piedmontese_in_italy [2017/05/01 16:13]
johanneke created
languages:piedmontese_in_italy [2020/10/05 10:37] (current)
ydwine [Language vitality according to]
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-====== ​"​Language" ​in "​Country" ​======+====== ​Piedmontese ​in Italy ======
-==== Language designations==== +==== Language designations ==== 
-  * In the language itself: ​//language name// +  * In the language itself: ​piemontèis or lenga piemontèisa 
-  * [[general_information:​glossary_of_terms#​ISO 639-3|ISO 639-3]] standard: ​//​language'​s ISO 639-3-code//​ +  * [[general_information:​glossary_of_terms#​ISO 639-3|ISO 639-3]] standard: ​pms
- +
-==== Language vitality according to: ==== +
-^ [[http://​​languages-atlas/​|UNESCO]] ^ [[https://​​language/​fry/​|Ethnologue]] ^ [[http://​​lang/​10425|Endangered Languages]] ^ +
-| //​Unesco'​s vitality score// | //​EGIDS'​ language status// ​ | //Languages Endangerment Index// | +
-==== Linguistic aspects: ===== +
-  * Classification:​ //language family// → //language group//. For more information,​ see //language resource at Glottolog// at [[http://​​|Glottolog]] +
-  * Script: //script used to write the language//+
 +==== Language vitality according to ====
 +^ [[http://​​languages-atlas/​|UNESCO]] ^ [[https://​​language/​pms/​|Ethnologue]] ^ [[http://​​lang/​3273|Endangered Languages]] ^  [[https://​​resource/​languoid/​id/​piem1238|Glottlog]] ​ ^
 +|  {{:​endangerment:​yellow.png?​nolink|definitely endangered}} ​ |  {{:​endangerment:​yellow.png?​nolink|in trouble}} ​ |  {{:​endangerment:​orange.png?​nolink|vulnerable}} ​ |  {{:​endangerment:​yellow.png?​nolink|threatened}} ​ | 
 +==== Linguistic aspects =====
 +  * Classification:​ Indo-European → Italic. For more information,​ see [[http://​​resource/​languoid/​id/​piem1238|piem1238]] at [[http://​​|Glottolog]]
 +  * Script: Latin
 ==== Language standardization ==== ==== Language standardization ====
-Is there a standardized ​orthography in use? Which institution ​maintains this orthography?+A standard ​orthography ​was developed ​in the 1930s by Viglongo and Pacot, known as the //grafia piemontese moderna// (modern Piedmontese orthography). Although this is considered the standard for official publications,​ in personal and commercial writings most speakers deviate from it and use their own variations.((Enrico Eandi (n.d.). "​Ortografia della lingua piemontese: sistema standard e sistemi fonetici"​. Retrieved May 27, 2017, from [[http://​​lese-e-scrive/​ortografia-della-lingua-piemontese-sistema-standard-e-sistemi-fonetici]].)) One survey reported that some speakers felt that the lack of a popularly used standard orthography was a potential obstacle to wider use of Piedmontese on digital media.((Claudia Soria (2017). "​Speakers'​ attitudes on Piedmontese:​ A case for vitality re-assessment",​ in Delyn Day, Poia Rewi, Rawinia Higgins (eds.), "The Journeys of Besieged Languages"​. Cambridge Scholars Publishing.)) There is no institution ​charged with maintaining a standard ​orthography
 +===== Demographics =====
 +==== Language Area ====
 +Piedmontese is spoken in Piedmont, a region in northwest Italy that shares borders with France and Switzerland. The Piedmontese language area does not cover the whole region of Piedmont: other regional varieties are also present, including Occitan and Franco-Provençal in the west, Lombard in the east, and some Walser communities speaking a Germanic variety.((Davide Ricca (2011). "​Dialetti piemontesi."​ In Treccani Enciclopedia dell'​Italiano.[[http://​​enciclopedia/​dialetti-piemontesi_(Enciclopedia-dell%27Italiano)]].))
 +The Piedmontese language itself is often divided into several mutually intelligible dialects. The dominant dialect is that of Turin, the capital of the region. This variety has largely spread itself over the western part of the region (with some minor variations),​ and is known as //​torinese//,​ //koinè//, or //​alto-piemontese//​. Other regional dialect groups include //​canavese//,​ //​biellese//,​ //​valsesiano//,​ //​alessandrino//,​ //​monferrino//,​ and //​langarolo//​.((Davide Ricca (2011). "​Dialetti piemontesi."​ In Treccani Enciclopedia dell'​Italiano.[[http://​​enciclopedia/​dialetti-piemontesi_(Enciclopedia-dell%27Italiano)]].))((Gary F. Simons and Charles D. Fennig (eds.) (2017). "​Piedmontese"​. In Ethnologue: Languages of the world, 20th edition.[[https://​​language/​pms]].))
 +{{https://​​wikipedia/​commons/​thumb/​3/​31/​Piemont%C3%A8is.jpg/​300px-Piemont%C3%A8is.jpg|Piedmontese linguistic map by F. Rubat Borel }}
 +This map, created by F. Rubat Borel, shows the languages spoken in Piedmont and the surrounding regions. Most of Piedmont itself is covered by Piedmontese,​ while Franco-Provençal,​ Occitan, Ligurian, Emilian, Lumbard and Walser German are all present on the edges.
 +==== Speaker numbers ====
 +Estimates of the number of speakers of Piedmontese range from 700,000 to 2,000,000. Additionally,​ over a million inhabitants of the region say they have some passive knowledge of the language.((Gary F. Simons and Charles D. Fennig (eds.) (2017). "​Piedmontese"​. In Ethnologue: Languages of the world, 20th edition.[[https://​​language/​pms]].))((Claudia Soria (2017). "​Speakers'​ attitudes on Piedmontese:​ A case for vitality re-assessment",​ in Delyn Day, Poia Rewi, Rawinia Higgins (eds.), "The Journeys of Besieged Languages"​. Cambridge Scholars Publishing.))((Il Rapporto IRES 113: 3.140.000 locutori. Gioventura Piemontèisa[[http://​​il-piemontese-e-la-prima-minoranza-della-repubblica/​il-rapporto-ires-n-113/​]]))
-===== Demographics ​=====+====== Education of the language ====== 
 +===== History of language education ​=====
-==== Language Area ====+Historically,​ Piedmontese has never had an official place in the Italian education system. However, in the first half of the 20th century it was still common for teachers to resort to using Piedmontese instead of Italian with their pupils, who were often raised monolingually in the regional language.
-Give a short description ​of the area where the language is spoken, and which dialects existIf available, upload an image of a map, illustrating where the language ​is spokenSee [[manual:​adding_media|Adding audiovideo or pictures]] for more information.+During the fascist era (1922-1945),​ written Piedmontese was explicitly prohibited as part of the government'​s quest to eliminate ​the regional languages of ItalyChildren speaking Piedmontese were punished and taught to be ashamed ​of their language. ​Howevereven during this time the language was still transmitted to younger generations and used commonly in the family.
-{{https://​​wikipedia/​commons/​thumb/​4/​43/​Percentage_stating_they_speak_Irish_daily_outside_the_education_system_in_the_2011_census.png/​340px-Percentage_stating_they_speak_Irish_daily_outside_the_education_system_in_the_2011_census.png }}+After the fall of the fascist government, Piedmontese was no longer forbidden, but monolingual (Italian) ideologies in the education system continued to be strongPiedmontese was seen as a backward language, useless and even harmful if one wanted to get ahead in lifeTeachers and parents alike decided to speak Italian with their children: 'for their own good'.
-Describe what the map shows, and give credits to the creator ​of the map if necessary.+Calls for the teaching of Piedmontese in schools rose in the 1970sbut were largely unsuccessful,​ until the regional government of Piedmont passed a law in 1990 offering limited provisions for the teaching of Piedmontese ​and other regional languages. However, it wasn't until 2000 that the teaching ​of Piedmontese in schools actually started with the ARBUT program (financed by the region of Piedmont). This program provided two hours a week of Piedmontese classes for pupils in participating schools (mostly primary schools, but also some secondary schools).
-==== Speaker numbers ​==== +In 2011 the region of Piedmont stopped supporting the ARBUT program financially. It continued to run in a limited way, with teachers working voluntarily and teaching materials paid for by private donations. Its current status is unclear.(([[http://​​la-lenga-piemonteisa-cronistoria-legislativa/​|La lenga piemontèisa:​ cronistòria legislativa. Gioventura Piemontèisa]]))(([[http://​​la-regione-volta-definitivamente-le-spalle-al-piemontese-a-scuola-che-fare/​|La Regione volta definitivamente le spalle al piemontese a scuola. Che fare? Gioventura Piemontèisa]]))(([[http://​​perche-l-piemonteis-a-scola-perche-il-piemontese-a-scuola/​arbut-el-piemonteis-a-scola-il-piemontese-a-scuola/​|Arbut - Ël piemontèis a scòla / Il piemontese a scuola. Gioventura Piemontèisa]]))(([[http://​​corsi_per_le_scuole.html|Corsi per le scuole. Nòstre Rèis]])) 
-If you wish to provide many data concerning speaker numbers, please consider presenting these in tables. Refer to Creating tables for more information.+===== Legislation of language education =====
 +Three levels of legislation (potentially) affect Piedmontese and its position in education: international/​European legislation,​ national Italian law and regional law of Piedmonte.
-----+On an international level, Italy has signed the [[general_information:​glossary_of_terms|European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages]] in 2000, but has not yet ratified it.((Chart of signatures and ratifications of Treaty 148: European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. Council of Europe. [[http://​​en/​web/​conventions/​full-list/-/​conventions/​treaty/​148/​signatures]].)) The ratification law has been under examination by a parliamentary commission since 2000, and four successive legislatures have failed to complete the process of ratification.((Silvo Boni (2015). Lingue regionali, l'​Italia verso la ratifica della Carta europea di tutela. [[http://​​2015/​03/​16/​lingue-31976/​31976]].)) The provisional text of the law would recognize and protect twelve linguistic minorities under the Charter. If passed, the ratification of the ECRML would grant additional status in education to the languages listed. However, the twelve languages considered for protection include several that are spoken in Piedmont, such as Franco-Provençal and Occitan, but not Piedmontese.((XVII Legislatura,​ Atto Camera 108. Proposta di legge: "​Ratifica ed esecuzione della Carta europea delle lingue regionali o minoritarie,​ fatta a Strasburgo il 5 novembre 1992"​.[[http://​​leg17/​126?​tab=2&​leg=17&​idDocumento=108&​sede=&​tipo=]].))
-====== Education of the language ====== +In Italian national law, the Legge Statale 482 from 1999 recognizes and protects ​the same twelve minority languages considered for the European Charter. For the recognized languages, schools in territories where they are spoken are allowed to use the minority ​language ​as a medium of instruction in addition to Italian. However, under this law Piedmontese is not recognized and thus not granted any status ​in the education ​system.((Legge 15 Dicembre 1999n. 482: "Norme in materia di tutela delle minoranze linguistiche storiche"​.[[http://​​parlam/​leggi/​99482l.htm]].))((Culture e lingue storiche del Piemonte: Normativa nazionale. Regione Piemonte. [[http://​​cultura/​cms/​memoria-e-cultura-del-territorio-e-patrimonio-linguistico/​culture-e-lingue-storiche-del-piemonte/​normativa-nazionale.html]].))
-===== History of language education: ===== +
-Please describe ​the history of the language's presence ​in+
-  * the country'​s school ​system+
-  * publishedbroadcasted,​ or online learning resources.+
-===== Legislation of language education ===== +In 1999 the regional government ​of Piedmont passed a motion officially recognizing Piedmontese as the regional ​language of PiedmontIn this motionthe regional government also asked the president of Italy to send the Legge Statale 482 (described aboveback to the Parliament, to be amended with the inclusion of Piedmontese in the list of minority languages to be recognized and protected. This effort failed, meaning that Piedmontese has official status only on the regional level.((Ordine del giorno n. 1118, 15 dicembre 1990. Consiglio Regionale del Piemonte. [[http://​​wp-content/​uploads/​2007/​05/​odg1118.pdf]].))
-Please describe legislation concerning education ​of the language. Distinguish between different levels ​of legislationFor instancelegislation concerning Aragonese language education in Aragon ​(Spainis affected by+
-  * The [[general_information:glossary_of_terms|European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages]], +The regional government of Piedmont first passed legislation to recognize and protect the linguistic minorities of the region in 1979, although this law did not include any direct practical measures.((Legge regionale n. 30 del 20 giugno 1979: Tutela del patrimonio linguistico e culturale del Piemonte. Consiglio Regionale del Piemonte.[[http://​​ariaint/​TESTO?​LAYOUT=PRESENTAZIONE&​TIPODOC=LEGGI&​LEGGE=30&​LEGGEANNO=1979]].)) In 1990another regional law (n. 26) followed in which more specific measures were lined out to protect and promote the regional languages spoken in Piedmontincluding Piedmontese as well as the other linguistic minorities. Article 5 of this law promotes courses for pre- and in-service teachers about the "​linguistic and cultural heritage" ​of Piedmont, as well as elective courses teaching the regional languages and cultures of Piedmont for at least one hour a week available to students at all levels of education. The regional government also provided funding for these courses.((Legge regionale 10 aprile 1990, n. 26: Tutela, valorizzazione e promozione della conoscenza dell'​originale patrimonio linguistico del Piemonte. Consiglio Regionale del Piemonte.[[http://​​base/​coord/​c1990026.html]].))
-  * Spanish legislation, +
-  * Legislation ​of the Autonomous Community ​of Aragon.+
-Questions that may be discussed ​in this section: +The 1990 regional legislation was followed ​in 2009 by a new regional law on the protection, valorisation and promotion ​of the linguistic heritage of Piedmont. This law contained further provisions for Piedmontese and other regional languages ​in education, even allowing for a limited role of the regional languages as medium ​of instruction alongside Italian. However, ​in 2010 the Constitutional Court of Italy ruled that the parts of the law that put Piedmontese on an equal status with OccitanFranco-Provençal,​ French and Walser German, with regards to recognition and protection, were unconstitutional. The status of Piedmontese in education has since been unclear.((Legge regionale n. 11 del 7 aprile 2009: Tutela, valorizzazione e promozione del patrimonio linguistico del Piemonte. Consiglio Regionale del Piemonte.[[http://​​ariaint/​TESTO?LAYOUT=PRESENTAZIONE&​TIPODOC=LEGGI&​LEGGE=11&​LEGGEANNO=2009]].))((Sentenza N.170 2010. Corte Costituzionale.[[http://​​​anno=2010&​numero=170#​]].))((Culture e lingue storiche del Piemonte: Strumenti legislativi. Regione Piemonte. [[http://​​cultura/​cms/​memoria-e-cultura-del-territorio-e-patrimonio-linguistico/​culture-e-lingue-storiche-del-piemonte/​strumenti-legislativi.html]]))
-  * Does the language enjoy some sort of official status? +
-  * Does the law prescribe that the language is taught ​in school? +
-  * Does the law prescribe some form of institutional support - in the form of universitiesteacher training facilities?+
-===== Bodies controlling enforcement ​of educational laws: =====+===== Support structure for education ​of the language ​=====
-Describe whether there are bodies ​that determine whether ​the legislation concerning ​language ​education is actually put into practice.+  * The official body governing education in Piedmont is the [[http://​​|Ufficio Scolastico Regionale Piemonte (Regional Education Office)]] of the national Ministery of Education, Universities and Research. 
 +  * [[http://​|Gioventura Piemontèisa]] is a non-governmental organisation ​that promotes ​the Piedmontese ​language ​and culture. It keeps a registry of qualified teachers of Piedmontese and offers teacher training courses((Trasmettere valori per professione:​ Albo Ufficiale dei Docenti di Lingua Piemontese. Gioventura Piemontèisa.[[http://​​trasmette-%E2%80%98d-valor-per-meste-trasmettere-valori-per-professione/​]].)).
 ===== Education in practice ===== ===== Education in practice =====
-Describe how education of the language works out in practice: 
-  * In which education levels is the language taught (primary, secondary, adult, etc)? 
-  * How many hours per week? 
-  * In how many schools / to how many pupils? 
-  * What school systems with respect to multilingualism are there (bilingual, trilingual)?​ 
-  * Are there sufficient qualified teachers and quality learning resources inside and outside of school? 
-  * What level of competence do students reach? 
-Can you say anything about to what extent education ​of the language helps to preserve it: +The ARBUT program, instituted in 2000, provides classes in Piedmontese language and culture ​to pupils in participating schools (usually primary, sometimes secondary). Generally these classes run for two hours per week. Nòstre Rèis, one of the organisations supporting the program, writes that the courses include learning ​to read and write in Piedmontese,​ speaking ​the language, reading literary and contemporary texts, and in some cases using Piedmontese as a medium ​of instruction for other subjects. From 2000, each year 150-200 ARBUT courses were organized across ​the province, with approximately 1500-2000 students participating. Since the regional government cut funding for the program ​in 2011it is unclear how many schools ​and pupils participate in ARBUT.((Corsi per le scuole. Nòstre Rèis.[[http://​​corsi_per_le_scuole.html]].))((Arbut - Ël piemontèis a scòla / Il piemontese a scuola. Gioventura Piemontèisa[[http://​​perche-l-piemonteis-a-scola-perche-il-piemontese-a-scuola/​arbut-el-piemonteis-a-scola-il-piemontese-a-scuola/​]].)) The ARBUT program was also supported by [[http://​|Gioventura Piemontèisa]].
-  * Do students use the language ​outside ​of school? +
-  * Does the fact that the language is being taught ​in school add to its prestige, and the speakers'​ self esteem?+
-Feel free to structure your information using chapter headings, ​e.g.:+Institutes of adult education in Piedmont occasionally offer courses in Piedmontese language and culture.((Lingua ​letteratura PiemonteseUNITRE Perosa e Valli[[http://​​lingua-e-letteratura-piemontese.html]].))
-==== Multilingual school systems====+The University of Turin offers a single, facultative course on Piedmontese in its Master'​s program in Linguistics. This course is taught in Italian.((Laboratorio di piemontese. University of Turin.[[http://​​do/​​Show?​_id=ajx7]])) 
 +Clearly, the place of Piedmontese in education is very limited, and this has had a negative impact on the vitality of the language. In Piedmont, the local language is often considered a code to be used by older people, and rarely spoken to children. Wider use of Piedmontese in education could help to change attitudes in the community and promote the idea that Piedmontese is a living language, suitable for both young and old.((Claudia Soria (2017). "​Speakers'​ attitudes on PiedmonteseA case for vitality re-assessment",​ in Delyn Day, Poia Rewi, Rawinia Higgins (eds.), "The Journeys of Besieged Languages"​. Cambridge Scholars Publishing.))
 ===== Learning resources and educational institutions ===== ===== Learning resources and educational institutions =====
-Please mention, point-by-point,​ institutions that provide ​language ​educationteacher trainingor that develop learning materials. You can also include broadcasting services or publishing houses.  +  * [[http://​​|Gioventura Piemontèisa]] promotes the Piedmontese ​language ​and culture. They have developed teaching materialsincluding the ARBUT programand maintain the registry of qualified teachers of Piedmontese
-In addition you can provide links to online ​learning ​resources. +  * [[http://​​|]] maintains ​online resources ​for the Piedmontese language and culture, including a Piedmontese-Italian dictionary, Piedmontese grammar, poetry in Piedmontese,​ and information about orthography
- +  * [[http://​​index.html|Nòste Rèis]] ​is a non-profit organisation promoting Piedmontese linguistic and cultural heritage. They contributed to the ARBUT program and their website offers information ​about the Piedmontese ​language, ​including ​short online course for Italian speakers. 
----- +  * [[http://​​|]] is an online Piedmontese-Italian dictionary. 
- +  * [[https://​​language/​numbers/​piedmontese.htm|Omniglot]] numbers.
- +
-====== Mercator'​s Regional Dossier====== +
-If there is a Mercator Regional Dossier ​about the language ​in this countryplease provide ​link below:+
languages/piedmontese_in_italy.1493648033.txt.gz · Last modified: 2017/05/01 16:13 by johanneke

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