User Tools

Site Tools


languages:occitan_in_italy

Differences

This shows you the differences between two versions of the page.

Link to this comparison view

Both sides previous revision Previous revision
Next revision
Previous revision
languages:occitan_in_italy [2018/08/31 11:22]
johanneke [Legislation of language education]
languages:occitan_in_italy [2020/10/05 10:35] (current)
ydwine [Language vitality according to:]
Line 6: Line 6:
  
 ==== Language vitality according to: ==== ==== Language vitality according to: ====
-^ [[http://​www.unesco.org/​languages-atlas/​|UNESCO]] ^ [[https://​www.ethnologue.com/​language/​oci|Ethnologue]] ^ [[http://​www.endangeredlanguages.com/​lang/​945|Endangered Languages]] ^ +^ [[http://​www.unesco.org/​languages-atlas/​|UNESCO]] ^ [[https://​www.ethnologue.com/​language/​oci|Ethnologue]] ^ [[http://​www.endangeredlanguages.com/​lang/​945|Endangered Languages]] ^  ​[[https:​//glottolog.org/​resource/​languoid/​id/​occi1239|Glottolog]] ​ ^ 
-//{{ :​endangerment:​orange.png | Severely endangered}}// //{{ :​endangerment:​green.png | Threatened}}//  ​| ​//{{ :​endangerment:​red.png | Critically endangered}}// |+|  ​{{:​endangerment:​orange.png|Severely endangered}} ​  {{:​endangerment:​green.png|Threatened}} ​ |  {{:​endangerment:​red.png| Critically endangered}} ​ ​| ​ {{:​endangerment:​white.png|not endangered}}  ​|
 ==== Linguistic aspects: ===== ==== Linguistic aspects: =====
   * Classification:​ //​Indo-European//​ → //Italic//. For more information,​ see [[http://​http://​glottolog.org/​resource/​languoid/​id/​occi1239/​|occi1239]] at [[http://​glottolog.org/​|Glottolog]]   * Classification:​ //​Indo-European//​ → //Italic//. For more information,​ see [[http://​http://​glottolog.org/​resource/​languoid/​id/​occi1239/​|occi1239]] at [[http://​glottolog.org/​|Glottolog]]
Line 40: Line 40:
 ===== Legislation of language education ===== ===== Legislation of language education =====
  
-The Occitan language community has been recognized in Italy as a '​historical language minority'​ since 1999 (([[http://​www.parlamento.it/​parlam/​leggi/​99482l.htm | Italian Parliament (1988). "Norme in materia di tutela delle minoranze linguistiche storiche",​ Legge 15 Dicembre 1999, n. 482, Art. 2, comma 1.]])). Occitan is not recognised as a regional language in the region where it is spoken, however usage of the language is being promoted and a law ensuring so has been passed and implemented in 2009 (([[http://​arianna.consiglioregionale.piemonte.it/​base/​coord/​c2009011.html | Consiglio Regionale del Piemonte (2009). "​Valorizzazione e promozione della conoscenza del patrimonio linguistico e culturale del Piemonte",​ Legge regionale 7 aprile 2009, n. 11, Art. 1]])). The older law, from 1999, also ensures that "its usage is allowed in the administration,​ education, and media anywhere local authorities choose to request so" (([[http://​www.sorosoro.org/​en/​occitan/ ​| Sorosoro - "​Occitan"​]])).\\+The Occitan language community has been recognized in Italy as a '​historical language minority'​ since 1999 (([[http://​www.parlamento.it/​parlam/​leggi/​99482l.htm | Italian Parliament (1988). "Norme in materia di tutela delle minoranze linguistiche storiche",​ Legge 15 Dicembre 1999, n. 482, Art. 2, comma 1.]])). Occitan is not recognised as a regional language in the region where it is spoken, however usage of the language is being promoted and a law ensuring so has been passed and implemented in 2009 (([[http://​arianna.consiglioregionale.piemonte.it/​base/​coord/​c2009011.html | Consiglio Regionale del Piemonte (2009). "​Valorizzazione e promozione della conoscenza del patrimonio linguistico e culturale del Piemonte",​ Legge regionale 7 aprile 2009, n. 11, Art. 1]])). The older law, from 1999, also ensures that "its usage is allowed in the administration,​ education, and media anywhere local authorities choose to request so" ((Latin Union. (2011). //​Occitan.//​ Soroso. ​[[http://​www.sorosoro.org/​en/​occitan/​]].)).\\
  
 The 1999 law and recognition and promotion of minority languages was well-received and according to Van der Jeught (2016) it deserves more attention and international acclaim. He says that "it strikes an ingenious balance between issues of national cohesion and unity, protection of minorities and territorialism,​ involving also the local (municipal) level. Italy has managed to make a clean break with an uneasy and even violent past in this respect, and could serve as a model for other countries facing similar challenges"​ (([[http://​www.ecmi.de/​fileadmin/​downloads/​publications/​JEMIE/​2016/​van_der_Jeught.pdf | Jeught, S. van der. (2016). The Protection of Linguistic Minorities in Italy: A Clean Break with the Past. Journal on Ethnopolitics and Minority Issues in Europe. Vol 15, No 3, 2016, 57-81.]])). The 1999 law and recognition and promotion of minority languages was well-received and according to Van der Jeught (2016) it deserves more attention and international acclaim. He says that "it strikes an ingenious balance between issues of national cohesion and unity, protection of minorities and territorialism,​ involving also the local (municipal) level. Italy has managed to make a clean break with an uneasy and even violent past in this respect, and could serve as a model for other countries facing similar challenges"​ (([[http://​www.ecmi.de/​fileadmin/​downloads/​publications/​JEMIE/​2016/​van_der_Jeught.pdf | Jeught, S. van der. (2016). The Protection of Linguistic Minorities in Italy: A Clean Break with the Past. Journal on Ethnopolitics and Minority Issues in Europe. Vol 15, No 3, 2016, 57-81.]])).
Line 47: Line 47:
 Italy has signed the European Charter for Regional or minority Languages, but it has yet to ratify the charter. Italy has signed the European Charter for Regional or minority Languages, but it has yet to ratify the charter.
 ===== Institutional support for education of the language: ===== ===== Institutional support for education of the language: =====
-There are various institutes that vouch for the preservation of the Occitan language. The institutes that are based in Italy are listed below. This list was based on information from Sorosoro (([[http://​www.sorosoro.org/​en/​occitan/ ​| Sorosoro - "​Occitan"​]])). There are many more institutes, mostly international,​ that support Occitan language and culture.+There are various institutes that vouch for the preservation of the Occitan language. The institutes that are based in Italy are listed below. This list was based on information from Sorosoro ((Latin Union. (2011). //​Occitan.//​ Soroso. ​[[http://​www.sorosoro.org/​en/​occitan/​]].)). There are many more institutes, mostly international,​ that support Occitan language and culture.
  
-  * Associazione Culturale Occitano – Guardiola +  * [[http://​www.espaci-occitan.org/​|Associazione Culturale Occitano]] – Guardiola ​\\ The Espaci Occitan Association "deals with the promotion of Occitan culture, particularly in terms of language, music, dance, traditions and territory."​((Associazione Espaci Occitan. (n.d.) //Chi Siamo.// [http://​www.espaci-occitan.org/​associazione/​chi-siamo/​]].)) 
-  * [[http://​www.chambradoc.it/​chambradochome.page | Chambra d'​Oc]] +  * [[http://​www.chambradoc.it/​chambraDoc.page| Chambra d'Oc]]\\ La Chambra d’Oc "is a cultural association whose main purpose is the protection, promotion and dissemination of the Occitan and Franco-Provençal and French languages."​((Chambra d'Oc. (n.d.) Chi Siamo. Chambra d'Oc. [[http://​www.chambradoc.it/​associazioneInfo.page]].)) 
-  * [[http://​www.coumboscuro.org/​centre_prouvencal/​index.php | Combouscuro Cèntre Prouvençal]] +  * [[http://​www.coumboscuro.org/​centre_prouvencal/​index.php | Combouscuro Cèntre Prouvençal]]\\ "The association'​s aim is to safeguard and enhance the culture, literature, history of European traditions - with particular reference to the Provencal language and culture - through every form of activity and action that guarantees its promotion, dissemination and enhancement. In particular, this action is carried out through the organization of events, manifestations,​ public conferences,​ refresher courses, competitions,​ exhibition reviews, festivals, publishing of information journals, printed matter, editorial and record products of all kinds, didactic and training actions."​((Coumboscuro Centre Prouvençal. (n.d.). //Centro Internazionale di Cultura Edizione Spettacolo//​ Coumboscuro Centre Prouvençal.[[http://​www.coumboscuro.org/​centre_prouvencal/​index.php]].)) 
-  * [[http://​www.espaci-occitan.com/​ | Èspaci Occitan]] +  * [[http://​www.espaci-occitan.com/​ | Èspaci Occitan]]\\ Èspaci Occitan "aims to defend and promote the Occitan language and culture in the department of Hautes-Alpes and Alpes de Haute Provence, but also throughout the PACA region."​((Espaci Occitan. (n.d.). //Bienvenu sur le site officiel de l'​Institut d'​Etudes Occitanes 04-05//. Espaci Occitan. [[https://​www.espaci-occitan.com/​]].)) 
-  * [[http://​www.lavaladdo.it/​ | La Valaddo]]+  * [[http://​www.lavaladdo.it/​ | La Valaddo]]\\  La Valaddo "has been particularly active in the cultural and environmental field, with particular reference to the activities of protection and enhancement of historical linguistic minorities, with a view to collaboration with entities, institutions,​ individuals and other cultural associations."​((La Valaddo. (n.d.) //​Benvenuto.//​ L'​Associazione Culturale "La Valaddo"​ .[[http://​www.lavaladdo.it/​chi-siamo.html]].))
   * Movimento Autonomista Occitano ​   * Movimento Autonomista Occitano ​
-  * [[http://​www.occitania.it/ousitanio/default.htm | Ousitanìo Vivo]] +  * [[http://​www.chambradoc.it/ousitanioVivo/cheCosEOusitanioVivo.page | Ousitanìo Vivo]]\\  
-  * Soulestrelh ​+  * [[https://​lousoulestrei.com/​soulestrelh/​|Soulestrelh]]\\ An association "with the purpose to protect and promote the Occitan language and culture. Its area of activity includes all the Occitan Alpine Valleys of Piedmont (provinces of Turin and Cuneo)."​((Lou Soulestrel. (n.d.) //​Soulestrel//​. [[https://​lousoulestrei.com/​soulestrelh/​]].))
   * Valados Usitanos   * Valados Usitanos
 ==== Language learning materials: ==== ==== Language learning materials: ====
Line 63: Line 63:
 Education in the language is possible only when schools are interested. As mentioned above, there is teaching material available for all ages. However, there are very few schools that offer education in Occitan and the courses that are available are extracurricular. Education in the language is possible only when schools are interested. As mentioned above, there is teaching material available for all ages. However, there are very few schools that offer education in Occitan and the courses that are available are extracurricular.
  
-[[http://​www.minoranze-linguistiche-scuola.it/​occitano/​ | Lingue di Minoranza e Scuola]] lists some schools and ongoing projects that focus on the Occitan language. It includes the following schools:+[[http://​www.minoranze-linguistiche-scuola.it/​occitano/​ | Lingue di Minoranza e Scuola]] ​//(broken link) //lists some schools and ongoing projects that focus on the Occitan language. It includes the following schools:
   * Istituto comprensivo di Cervasca   * Istituto comprensivo di Cervasca
   * Istituto comprensivo di Corigliano d'​Otranto Lecce   * Istituto comprensivo di Corigliano d'​Otranto Lecce
Line 71: Line 71:
 ===== Online learning resources ===== ===== Online learning resources =====
  
-Online learning resources for Occitan are widely available. Most of these are from French institutions such as the //Institut d'​Estudis Occitans// ([[http://www.ieo-oc.org/Learning-and-transmitting-the,​434 ​IEO - Learning and transmitting the language]]). However, there are  Italian institutions promoting and preserving the language as well. Below are some links to the websites where you can find online learning resources.+Online learning resources for Occitan are widely available. Most of these are from French institutions such as the [[https://​ieo-oc.org/​?lang=fr|Institut d'​Estudis Occitans]]. \\ However, there are  Italian institutions promoting and preserving the language as well. Below are some links to the websites where you can find online learning resources
 + 
 +  * [[http://​www.chambradoc.it/​chambraDoc.page | Chambra d'​Oc]],​ with [[http://​www.chambradoc.it/​insegnamentoOn-line.page| online lessons]] 
 +  * [[http://​www.librinlinea.it/​search/​public/​appl/​list.php?​search_string=&​submit=cerca&​adv_search=y&​from_search=1&​ord=numero_visualizzazioni|online Occitan library]] with more than 3 million sources, in several languages. 
 +  * [[http://​www.occitania.online.fr/​aqui.comenca.occitania/​en-oc.html|Occitania]] list of words English/​Occitan. 
 +  * [[http://​occitan.provencal.free.fr/​index_uk.php|Occitan on Langoland]] list of words English/​Occitan,​ sorted per theme. 
 +  * [[http://​www.languedoc-france.info/​190312_sayings.htm|Langue D'Oc]] list with sayings. 
 +  * [[http://​www.aprenemloccitan.com/​ | Aprenem l’occitan! L’occitan je m’y mets]] with an overview of courses in the region
  
-  * [[http://​www.orbilat.com/​Languages/​Occitan/​Occitan.html | Orbilat]] 
-  * [[http://​www.chambradoc.it/​chambraDoc.page | Chambra d'​Oc]],​ specifically the page [[http://​www.chambradoc.it/​introduzionePLEoc/​Corso-di-insegnamento-delloccitano-on-line.page | Insegnamento on-line]]. 
-  * [[http://​www.aprenemloccitan.com/​ | Aprenem l’occitan! L’occitan je m’y mets]] 
 ---- ----
  
Line 81: Line 85:
  
 ====== Presence of the language outside of education ====== ====== Presence of the language outside of education ======
-The Occitan language is surprisingly present in the media. Most of the media is based in France, but there is Italian media that includes the Occitan language as well. The Occitan media coming from Italy consists almost solely of papers and magazines, therefore a seperate list was created below. This information was taken from Sorosoro (([[http://​www.sorosoro.org/​en/​occitan/ ​| Sorosoro - "​Occitan"​]])), where you can find a list of all Occitan media.+The Occitan language is surprisingly present in the media. Most of the media is based in France, but there is Italian media that includes the Occitan language as well. The Occitan media coming from Italy consists almost solely of papers and magazines, therefore a seperate list was created below. This information was taken from Sorosoro ((Latin Union. (2011). //​Occitan.//​ Soroso. ​[[http://​www.sorosoro.org/​en/​occitan/​]].)), where you can find a list of all Occitan media.
  
 ===== Papers and magazines ===== ===== Papers and magazines =====
Line 94: Line 98:
  
 For a more complete list including the publications issued in France and Spain, please visit [[http://​www.sorosoro.org/​en/​occitan/​ | Sorosoro]]. For a more complete list including the publications issued in France and Spain, please visit [[http://​www.sorosoro.org/​en/​occitan/​ | Sorosoro]].
-====== Mercator'​s Regional Dossier: ====== +
-As of now, there is no Mercator Regional Dossier available for Occitan.+
languages/occitan_in_italy.1535707324.txt.gz · Last modified: 2018/08/31 11:22 by johanneke

Creative Commons License
Mercator's wiki on minority language education by Mercator European Research Centre on Multilingualism and Language Learning
is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
Based on a work at www.mercatorwiki.eu.
Permissions beyond the scope of this license may be available at www.mercator-research.eu.