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languages:mirandes_in_portugal [2017/12/13 15:37]
sara_pinho [Education presence]
languages:mirandes_in_portugal [2020/10/05 10:25]
ydwine [Language vitality according to:]
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 ==== Language vitality according to: ==== ==== Language vitality according to: ====
-^ [[http://​www.unesco.org/​languages-atlas/​|UNESCO]] ​ ^ [[https://​www.ethnologue.com/​language/​mwl/​|Ethnologue]] ​ ^ [[http://​www.endangeredlanguages.com/​lang/​4734|Endangered Languages]] ​ ^ +^ [[http://​www.unesco.org/​languages-atlas/​|UNESCO]] ​ ^ [[https://​www.ethnologue.com/​language/​mwl/​|Ethnologue]] ​ ^ [[http://​www.endangeredlanguages.com/​lang/​4734|Endangered Languages]] ​ ^  ​[[https://​glottolog.org/​resource/​languoid/​id/​mira1251|Glottolog]] ​ ^  ​ 
-| {{ :​endangerment:​yellow.png?nolink }}              | {{ :​endangerment:​purple.png?nolink }}                    | {{ :​endangerment:​orange.png?nolink }}                                  |+ //​n.a.// ​ |  ​{{:​endangerment:​purple.png?​nolink}} ​  {{:​endangerment:​yellow.png?nolink|vulnerable}}                    |  {{:​endangerment:​yellow.png?nolink|threatened}}   
 ==== Linguistic aspects: ===== ==== Linguistic aspects: =====
   * Classification:​ Indo-European → Italic. For more information,​ see [[http://​glottolog.org/​resource/​languoid/​id/​mira1251|mira1251]] at [[http://​glottolog.org/​|Glottolog]]   * Classification:​ Indo-European → Italic. For more information,​ see [[http://​glottolog.org/​resource/​languoid/​id/​mira1251|mira1251]] at [[http://​glottolog.org/​|Glottolog]]
   * Script: Latin   * Script: Latin
  
 +Listen to the language [[https://​www.youtube.com/​watch?​v=5Uo-B9GaciQ#​action=share|here]] and [[https://​www.youtube.com/​watch?​time_continue=2&​v=-gnJtZFyzZA&​feature=emb_logo|here]]
 ==== Language standardization ==== ==== Language standardization ====
-There is a [[http://​mirandadodouro.jfreguesia.com/​images/​stories/​PDF/​convencaomirandes.pdf|standardized ortography]] created in 1999 in a joint effort by the Town Council of Miranda do Douro and the [[http://​www.clul.ulisboa.pt/​en/​|CLUL (Center for Linguistics of the University of Lisbon)]]((Manuela Barros Ferreira and Domingos Raposo, //​Convenção Ortográfica da Língua Mirandesa// (1999), Câmara Municipal de Miranda do Douro e Centro de Linguística da Universidade de Lisboa, <​http://​mirandadodouro.jfreguesia.com/​images/​stories/​PDF/​convencaomirandes.pdf>​ [accessed 03 December 2017])). ​+[[http://​mirandadodouro.jfreguesia.com/​images/​stories/​PDF/​convencaomirandes.pdf|standardized ortography]] ​was created in 1999 in a joint effort by the Town Council of Miranda do Douro and the [[http://​www.clul.ulisboa.pt/​en/​|CLUL (Center for Linguistics of the University of Lisbon)]]((Manuela Barros Ferreira and Domingos Raposo, //​Convenção Ortográfica da Língua Mirandesa// (1999), Câmara Municipal de Miranda do Douro e Centro de Linguística da Universidade de Lisboa, <​http://​mirandadodouro.jfreguesia.com/​images/​stories/​PDF/​convencaomirandes.pdf>​ [accessed 03 December 2017])). ​
  
  
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 ==== Speaker numbers ==== ==== Speaker numbers ====
-Many cite 15.000 as the number of speakers of Mirandese; however, this is number is most likely too high, even though there is no certainty of how many speakers there really are. It is estimated that there should be around 5000 speakers in the region of Miranda do Douro, and, approximately,​ another 5000, maximum, of emigrants who still speak Mirandese. These numbers ​consider ​both fluent speakers, who speak Mirandese on a daily basis, and those who speak it infrequently ​or might even only have very basic knowledge of the language. ​If only the first group were to be counted, then these numbers would be quite lower ((Amadeu Ferreira, //O Mínimo sobre a língua mirandesa// (2010), <​http://​studosmirandeses.blogs.sapo.pt/​1294.html>​ [accessed 14 November 2017])).+Many cite 15.000 as the number of speakers of Mirandese; however, this is number is most likely too high. It is estimated that there should be around 5000 speakers in the region of Miranda do Douro, and, approximately,​ another 5000, max, of emigrants who still speak Mirandese. These numbers ​include ​both fluent speakers, who speak Mirandese on a daily basis, and those who speak it infrequently ​and may have only very basic language ​skills.((Amadeu Ferreira, //O Mínimo sobre a língua mirandesa// (2010), <​http://​studosmirandeses.blogs.sapo.pt/​1294.html>​ [accessed 14 November 2017])).
  
  
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 ====== Education of the language ====== ====== Education of the language ======
 ===== History of language education: ===== ===== History of language education: =====
-Mirandese was until very late a language transmitted at home from generation to generation. Only in the eighties did the necessity to teach the language in school ​become pressing, also as a way to revitalize Mirandese. For this reason, in 1982 a petition by the management body of the Secondary School of Miranda do Douro was brought forward ​to the Ministry of Education, which requested permission to implement an optional course of Mirandese. This petition was denied by the Ministry ​with the justification ​that, legally, courses ​which were unfamiliar to the curricula taught in the whole country ​could not be introduced ​anywhere ​((Abílio Domingos Raposo, '​Ansino de l mirandés',​ in //Estudos mirandeses: balanço e orientações. Homenagem a António Maria Mourinho//, ed. by José Francisco Meirinhos (Estarreja: Riagráfica,​ 1999), pp. 99-107.)). Only in 1985 was it approved that a weekly, two-hour, optional course of Mirandese for the 5th and 6th grades ​be implemented in the region of Miranda do Douro ((Abílio Domingos Raposo, '​Ansino de l mirandés',​ in //Estudos mirandeses: balanço e orientações. Homenagem a António Maria Mourinho//, ed. by José Francisco Meirinhos (Estarreja: Riagráfica,​ 1999), pp. 99-107.)) and thus 1986/1987 were the first academic years in which Mirandese was taught at the Elementary School of Miranda do Douro ((Amadeu Ferreira, //O Mínimo sobre a língua mirandesa// (2010), <​http://​studosmirandeses.blogs.sapo.pt/​1294.html>​ [accessed 14 November 2017])). ​+Mirandese was until recently ​a language transmitted at home from generation to generation. Only in the eighties did the necessity to teach the language in school ​arise, also as a way to revitalize Mirandese. For this reason, in 1982 a petition by the management body of the Secondary School of Miranda do Douro was presented ​to the Ministry of Education, which requested permission to implement an optional course of Mirandese. This petition was denied by the Ministry ​which stated ​that, legally, courses ​that were not part of the national curriculum ​could not be introduced ​at specific locations ​((Abílio Domingos Raposo, '​Ansino de l mirandés',​ in //Estudos mirandeses: balanço e orientações. Homenagem a António Maria Mourinho//, ed. by José Francisco Meirinhos (Estarreja: Riagráfica,​ 1999), pp. 99-107.)). Only in 1985 a weekly, two-hour, optional course of Mirandese for the 5th and 6th grades ​was approved for the region of Miranda do Douro ((Abílio Domingos Raposo, '​Ansino de l mirandés',​ in //Estudos mirandeses: balanço e orientações. Homenagem a António Maria Mourinho//, ed. by José Francisco Meirinhos (Estarreja: Riagráfica,​ 1999), pp. 99-107.)) and thus 1986/1987 were the first academic years in which Mirandese was taught at the Elementary School of Miranda do Douro ((Amadeu Ferreira, //O Mínimo sobre a língua mirandesa// (2010), <​http://​studosmirandeses.blogs.sapo.pt/​1294.html>​ [accessed 14 November 2017])). ​
  
  
-Nowadays, Mirandese is taught in all years of study. However, it was only with the official recognition of the Mirandese language in 1999 that the instruction of Mirandese was regulated and extended to other schools, though still merely as an optional course ((Rosa Ramos, //Língua Mirandesa// (2013), <​https://​blog.lusofonias.net/?​p=12251>​ [accessed 4 December 2017])). In Sendim, where one of the three dialects is spoken, the first courses of the Mirandese language for 5th and 6th graders started ​only in 2000 ((Amadeu Ferreira, //O Mínimo sobre a língua mirandesa// (2010), <​http://​studosmirandeses.blogs.sapo.pt/​1294.html>​ [accessed 14 November 2017])) and the first courses for 7th to 9th graders ​only opened in 2002/2003, for preschoolers and 1st to 4th graders in 2004/2005, and only two years later for secondary school students ((Margarete Silva, //Língua mirandesa,+Nowadays, Mirandese is taught in all years of study. However, it was only with the official recognition of the Mirandese language in 1999 that the instruction of Mirandese was regulated and extended to other schools, though still merely as an optional course ((Rosa Ramos, //Língua Mirandesa// (2013), <​https://​blog.lusofonias.net/?​p=12251>​ [accessed 4 December 2017])). In Sendim, where one of the three dialects is spoken, the first courses of the Mirandese language for 5th and 6th graders started in 2000 ((Amadeu Ferreira, //O Mínimo sobre a língua mirandesa// (2010), <​http://​studosmirandeses.blogs.sapo.pt/​1294.html>​ [accessed 14 November 2017])) and the first courses for 7th to 9th graders opened in 2002/2003, for preschoolers and 1st to 4th graders in 2004/2005, and two years later for secondary school students ((Margarete Silva, //Língua mirandesa,
 ou a revitalização de uma língua em vias de desaparecimento//​ (Master'​s thesis), (Vila Real: Universidade de Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, 2017), <​http://​repositorio.utad.pt/​bitstream/​10348/​7255/​1/​msc_miasilva.pdf>​ [accessed 12 November 2017])). ou a revitalização de uma língua em vias de desaparecimento//​ (Master'​s thesis), (Vila Real: Universidade de Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, 2017), <​http://​repositorio.utad.pt/​bitstream/​10348/​7255/​1/​msc_miasilva.pdf>​ [accessed 12 November 2017])).
  
  
 ===== Legislation of language education ===== ===== Legislation of language education =====
-In 1999, the Portuguese Parliament officially recognized linguistic rights to the Mirandese community ((Portuguese Parliament, //Law no. 7/99 (from 29th January). Reconhecimento oficial de direitos linguísticos da comunidade mirandesa.//​ (1999), Diário da República I série, no. 24, <​https://​dre.pt/​application/​file/​182897>​ [accessed 13 November 2017])), which recognizes, among others, the following:+In 1999, the Portuguese Parliament officially recognized linguistic rights to the Mirandese community ((Portuguese Parliament, //Law no. 7/99 (from 29th January). Reconhecimento oficial de direitos linguísticos da comunidade mirandesa.//​ (1999), Diário da República I série, no. 24, <​https://​dre.pt/​application/​file/​182897>​ [accessed 13 November 2017])), which include, among others, the following:
   * The right to cultivate and promote the Mirandese language, as a culture, an instrument of communication and identity of the land of Miranda;   * The right to cultivate and promote the Mirandese language, as a culture, an instrument of communication and identity of the land of Miranda;
   * The right of the child to learn Mirandese is recognized;   * The right of the child to learn Mirandese is recognized;
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 In fact, this law only ratified what had already been approved in 1985 ((Paulo Feytor Pinto, '​Educação e diversidade linguística em Portugal',​ //​Mediações – Revista OnLine da Escola Superior de Educação do Instituto Politécnico de Setúbal//, 5.1, (2017), 36-43.)). In fact, this law only ratified what had already been approved in 1985 ((Paulo Feytor Pinto, '​Educação e diversidade linguística em Portugal',​ //​Mediações – Revista OnLine da Escola Superior de Educação do Instituto Politécnico de Setúbal//, 5.1, (2017), 36-43.)).
  
-The Portuguese Constitution does not mention the Mirandese language. ​And Portugal has not signed the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages.+The Portuguese Constitution does not mention the Mirandese language. 
 + 
 +Portugal has not signed the [[general_information:​glossary_of_terms|European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages]], because "no regional ​ or  minority ​ language ​ is  spoken ​ in their territory"​((Berényi,​ J. (2010, October 21). //The European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages//​. Parliamentary Assembly Council of Europe [[https://​www.refworld.org/​pdfid/​4d8b18322.pdf]].))
 ===== Institutional support for education of the language: ===== ===== Institutional support for education of the language: =====
-Even though Mirandese has been taught in schools for 30 years teaching materials and training ​for teachers ​of Mirandese is scarce ((Amadeu Ferreira, //O Mínimo sobre a língua mirandesa// (2010), <​http://​studosmirandeses.blogs.sapo.pt/​1294.html>​ [accessed 14 November 2017])). However, ​in more recents, a few steps have been taken to change this. On the 25th of September 2017 a protocol was signed ​a protocol ​between the municipality of Miranda do Douro, the Ministry of Education and the University of Coimbra to reinforce the pilot project aimed at teaching and learning the Mirandese language and culture and in this way improve the training of teachers ​of this language and ensure ​the possibility of continued teaching of this course in schools ((Rádio Brigantia, //Criada formação de professores de mirandês para garantir ensino da língua nas escolas// (2017), <​http://​www.brigantia.pt/​noticia/​criada-formacao-de-professores-de-mirandes-para-garantir-ensino-da-lingua-nas-escolas>​ [accessed 6 December 2017])). ​+Even though Mirandese has been taught in schools for 30 yearsteaching materials and training of Mirandese ​language teachers ​is scarce ((Amadeu Ferreira, //O Mínimo sobre a língua mirandesa// (2010), <​http://​studosmirandeses.blogs.sapo.pt/​1294.html>​ [accessed 14 November 2017])). However, ​on the 25th of September 2017 a protocol was signed between the municipality of Miranda do Douro, the Ministry of Education and the University of Coimbra to reinforce the pilot project aimed at teaching and learning the Mirandese language and culture and in this way improve the training of teachers ​so that the continued teaching of this course in schools ​is ensured ​((Rádio Brigantia, //Criada formação de professores de mirandês para garantir ensino da língua nas escolas// (2017), <​http://​www.brigantia.pt/​noticia/​criada-formacao-de-professores-de-mirandes-para-garantir-ensino-da-lingua-nas-escolas>​ [accessed 6 December 2017])). ​
  
 ==== Language learning materials: ==== ==== Language learning materials: ====
-There are some books for children, frequently used as school ​books for the younger, resulting from the collection of Mirandese short stories that were transmitted orally,  ​by the author Duarte Martins, teacher of Mirandese in the School Group of Miranda do Douro, in collaboration with illustrators and designers ((Notícias ao Minuto, //​Associação apresenta manuais escolares em língua mirandesa// (2016), <​https://​www.noticiasaominuto.com/​pais/​617106/​associacao-apresenta-manuais-escolares-em-lingua-mirandesa>​ [accessed 6 December 2017])).+There are children'​s ​books by the author Duarte Martins, teacher of Mirandese in the School Group of Miranda do Douro, in collaboration with illustrators and designers ((Notícias ao Minuto, //​Associação apresenta manuais escolares em língua mirandesa// (2016), <​https://​www.noticiasaominuto.com/​pais/​617106/​associacao-apresenta-manuais-escolares-em-lingua-mirandesa>​ [accessed 6 December 2017]))., frequently used as school books for the younger pupils, based on of a collection of orally transmitted Mirandese short stories.
 ===== Education presence ===== ===== Education presence =====
 __Enrollments in the Course of Mirandese Language and Culture in the School Group of Miranda do Douro__ ((Margarete Silva, //Língua mirandesa, ou a revitalização de uma língua em vias de desaparecimento//​ (Master'​s thesis), (Vila Real: Universidade de Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, 2017), <​http://​repositorio.utad.pt/​bitstream/​10348/​7255/​1/​msc_miasilva.pdf>​ [accessed 12 November 2017])) __Enrollments in the Course of Mirandese Language and Culture in the School Group of Miranda do Douro__ ((Margarete Silva, //Língua mirandesa, ou a revitalização de uma língua em vias de desaparecimento//​ (Master'​s thesis), (Vila Real: Universidade de Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, 2017), <​http://​repositorio.utad.pt/​bitstream/​10348/​7255/​1/​msc_miasilva.pdf>​ [accessed 12 November 2017]))
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 | 2015/​2016 ​ | 95         | 188                | 63                  | 78                 | 34                | | 2015/​2016 ​ | 95         | 188                | 63                  | 78                 | 34                |
  
-As can be seen in these tables, Mirandese is taught in all years until university. It is still an optional, extra-curricular course, which could explain why in secondary school there are so few students enrolled in the course. It is only taught for an hour a week, and, in general, there is a lack of suitable materials, as well as a lack of support ​to train teachers ​((Amadeu Ferreira, //O Mínimo sobre a língua mirandesa// (2010), <​http://​studosmirandeses.blogs.sapo.pt/​1294.html>​ [accessed 14 November 2017])).  ​+As can be seen in these tables, Mirandese is taught in all years until university. It is still an optional, extra-curricular course, which could explain why in secondary school there are so few students enrolled in the course. It is only taught for an hour a week, and, in general, there is a lack of suitable materials, as well as a lack of support ​for teacher training ​((Amadeu Ferreira, //O Mínimo sobre a língua mirandesa// (2010), <​http://​studosmirandeses.blogs.sapo.pt/​1294.html>​ [accessed 14 November 2017])).  ​
  
 There used to be a course of Mirandese at the University of Trás-os-Montes and Alto Douro, but it has unfortunately been abandoned ((Amadeu Ferreira, //O Mínimo sobre a língua mirandesa// (2010), <​http://​studosmirandeses.blogs.sapo.pt/​1294.html>​ [accessed 14 November 2017])). There used to be a course of Mirandese at the University of Trás-os-Montes and Alto Douro, but it has unfortunately been abandoned ((Amadeu Ferreira, //O Mínimo sobre a língua mirandesa// (2010), <​http://​studosmirandeses.blogs.sapo.pt/​1294.html>​ [accessed 14 November 2017])).
languages/mirandes_in_portugal.txt · Last modified: 2020/10/05 10:25 by ydwine

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