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languages:lombard_in_italy [2020/03/02 15:48]
ydwine [Language standardization]
languages:lombard_in_italy [2020/09/08 10:58] (current)
ydwine [Language vitality according to:]
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 ==== Language vitality according to: ==== ==== Language vitality according to: ====
-^ [[http://​www.unesco.org/​languages-atlas/​|UNESCO]] ^ [[https://​www.ethnologue.com/​language/​fry/​|Ethnologue]] ^ [[http://​www.endangeredlanguages.com/​lang/10425|Endangered Languages]] ^ +^ [[http://​www.unesco.org/​languages-atlas/​|UNESCO]] ^ [[https://​www.ethnologue.com/​language/​lmo/​|Ethnologue]] ^ [[http://​www.endangeredlanguages.com/​|Endangered Languages]] ​^  [[https://​glottolog.org/​resource/​languoid/​id/​lomb1257|Glottolog]]  ​
-| {{ :​endangerment:​orange.png?​nolink |Definitely Endangered}} | //{{ :​endangerment:​yellow.png?​nolink |6a (Vigorous)}}// ​ |  n.a.  |+ {{:​endangerment:​orange.png?​nolink|Definitely Endangered}} ​ | //{{ :​endangerment:​yellow.png?​nolink |6a (Vigorous)}}// ​ |  n.a.  ​| ​ {{:​endangerment:​orange.png?​nolink|Shifting}} ​ ​| ​
 ==== Linguistic aspects: ===== ==== Linguistic aspects: =====
   * Classification:​ //​Indo-European//​ → //​Gallo-Italian//​. For more information,​ see [[http://​glottolog.org/​resource/​languoid/​id/​lomb1257|language resource at Glottolog]]   * Classification:​ //​Indo-European//​ → //​Gallo-Italian//​. For more information,​ see [[http://​glottolog.org/​resource/​languoid/​id/​lomb1257|language resource at Glottolog]]
   * Script: //​Latin/​Roman script//   * Script: //​Latin/​Roman script//
 +
 +Listen to the language [[https://​www.youtube.com/​watch?​v=Nb0L5YeFCmU|here]] (Milanese variety).
  
 ==== Language standardization ==== ==== Language standardization ====
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 The main institiution to research the Lombard variety is the [[https://​www4.ti.ch/​decs/​dcsu/​cde/​cde//​|CDE]] or Centro di dialettologia e di etnografia located in Bellinzona, Switzerland. In 2004, the CDE released a dictionary containing five volumes which cover all the Lombard varieties spoken in the Swiss areas. Lombard is furthermore used in television and radio broadcast in the area around Bellinzona. Italy does not have a comparable institution,​ which is why there is significantly less data on Lombard as spoken in Italy((Tamburelli,​ M. (2014). Uncovering the ‘hidden’ multilingualism of Europe: an Italian case study. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development,​ 35(3), 252-270)). The main institiution to research the Lombard variety is the [[https://​www4.ti.ch/​decs/​dcsu/​cde/​cde//​|CDE]] or Centro di dialettologia e di etnografia located in Bellinzona, Switzerland. In 2004, the CDE released a dictionary containing five volumes which cover all the Lombard varieties spoken in the Swiss areas. Lombard is furthermore used in television and radio broadcast in the area around Bellinzona. Italy does not have a comparable institution,​ which is why there is significantly less data on Lombard as spoken in Italy((Tamburelli,​ M. (2014). Uncovering the ‘hidden’ multilingualism of Europe: an Italian case study. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development,​ 35(3), 252-270)).
  
-Projects such as [[http://​inlombard.eu.pn/|inlombard.eu.pn]] promote the collection of data on Lombard and its standardization by creating a linguistic observatory online.+Projects such as [[http://​inlombard.eu5.net/|In_Lombard]] promote the collection of data on Lombard and its standardization by creating a linguistic observatory online.
 ===== Demographics ===== ===== Demographics =====
  
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 ===== Legislation of language education ===== ===== Legislation of language education =====
  
-Even though Italy signed and ratified the European ​Charter for Regional or Minority Languages [[http://​pjp-eu.coe.int/​en/​web/​minority-rights/​ecrml|(ECRML)]],​ it has failed to include Lombard in their protection program. Italy defines minority langauges legally by a national law, N. 482/99, which protects only twelve languages: Catalan, Occitan, Albanian, German, Greek, Slovene, Croatian, French, Francoprovençal,​ Friulian, Ladin and Sardinian ((Coluzzi, Paolo. "​Endangered minority and regional languages (‘dialects’) in Italy."​ Modern Italy 14.1 (2009): 39-54.)). ​+===European===
  
-Due to this very narrow definition this in practice means that there is no governmental support for Lombard in education in Italy. The Italian government considers Lombard a dialect of Standard Italian despite evidence of very limited mutual intelligibilty((Tamburelli,​ M. (2014). Uncovering ​the ‘hidden’ multilingualism of European Italian case studyJournal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development,​ 35(3), 252-270)).+Even though ​Italy signed ​the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages [[https://www.coe.int/​en/​web/​european-charter-regional-or-minority-languages/​homel|(ECRML)]] in 2000it has not ratified it
  
 +===National=== ​
  
 +Italy defines minority langauges legally by a national law, [[https://​www.camera.it/​parlam/​leggi/​99482l.htm|N. 482/99]], which protects twelve languages: Catalan, Occitan, Albanian, German, Greek, Slovene, Croatian, French, Francoprovençal,​ Friulian, Ladin and Sardinian ((Coluzzi, Paolo. "​Endangered minority and regional languages (‘dialects’) in Italy."​ Modern Italy 14.1 (2009): 39-54.)). The Italian government considers Lombard a dialect of Standard Italian despite evidence of very limited mutual intelligibilty((Tamburelli,​ M. (2014). Uncovering the ‘hidden’ multilingualism of Europe: an Italian case study. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development,​ 35(3), 252-270)).
  
-===== Bodies controlling enforcement of educational laws: =====+===Regional===
  
-According to a case study on Western ​Lombard, which is spoken by at least 2 Mio people - which is almost as many speakers as in the case of all the recognised minority languages of Italy put together - language planningincluding the use of Western Lombard in education is carried out only by a number of uncoordinated initiatives by private bodies and institutions((ColuzziPaolo"​Minority language planning and micronationalism in Italy: The cases of Lombardy and Friuli."​ Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development 27.6 (2006): 457-471.)). The most prominent one is the [[http://www.filologico.it/|Circolo Filologico Milanese]].+In October 2016, Lombard ​received regional recognition within ​the region ​of Lombardia with Legge Regionaleoct 2016n5.the [[http://normelombardia.consiglio.regione.lombardia.it/NormeLombardia/​Accessibile/​main.aspx?​exp_coll=lr002016100700025&​view=showdoc&​iddoc=lr002016100700025&​selnode=lr002016100700025|Politiche regionali in materia culturale - Riordino normativo]]. 
 +There, broad measurements are taken for the promotion and safeguarding of the Lombard language, such as:
  
-===== Education ​in practice =====+Article 1 
 +  * a) dissemination of knowledge and expansion of the use of the tangible and intangible cultural heritage present ​in the Lombardy region; 
 +  * d) promotion of respect for intellectual property rights related to the use of goods, cultural activities and entertainment;​ 
 +  * e) dissemination and safeguarding of cultures, traditions and popular music, typical food culture and linguistic heritage and enhancement of the multiform expressions of identities, languages ​​and cultural productions in Lombardy; 
 +  * i) integration with policies and interventions related to the protection and enhancement of the environment and landscape, the promotion of the territory, tourism, crafts, research, education and training, welfare
  
-Bilingual education in Lombard and Italian has only been present in full-time education in a few experimental trials. In higher education, Lombard is virtually absent((Coluzzi,​ Paolo. "​Minority language planning and micronationalism in Italy: The cases of Lombardy and Friuli."​ Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development 27.6 (2006): 457-471.)). 
  
-===== Learning resources and educational institutions ===== 
  
-There is no evidence of institutions that provide language education, teacher training, or any initiative to develop learning materials. 
  
-As mentioned above, the promotion of the Lombard language is mainly carried out by private actors. Websites such as [[https://​www.mylanguageexchange.com/​Learn/​Lombard.asp|Learn to Speak Lombard]] make an effort to bring together students of Lombard with native Lombard speakers. This exchange is not only limited to the linguistic aspects of Lombard but furthermore recognizes its distinct culture. 
  
-Projects like the [[http://​www.endangeredlanguages.com/|Endangered Languages Project]] still fail to include ​Lombard in their database.+===== Support structure for education on the language ===== 
 + 
 +According to a case study on Western Lombard, language planning - including the use of Western Lombard in education - is carried out by a number of uncoordinated initiatives by private bodies and institutions,​ which are centred around the Milanese variety((Coluzzi,​ Paolo. "​Minority language planning and micronationalism in Italy: The cases of Lombardy and Friuli."​ Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development 27.6 (2006): 457-471.)). The most prominent one is the [[http://​www.filologico.it/|Circolo Filologico Milanese]], which offers courses of 25 lessons on the grammar, luterature, translations,​ converstaions,​ proverbs and visits ​to artistic cultural places ((Circolo Filologico Milanese. //​Milanese//​. (n.d.) Retrieved from: [[https://​filologico.it/​attivita_culturale/​impariamo-e-divulghiamo-il-milanese-19/​]].)).  
 +
 + 
 +===== Education in practice ===== 
 + 
 +Bilingual education in Lombard ​and Italian has only been present ​in full-time education in a few experimental trials, with the focus on the Milanese varietyIn higher education, Lombard is virtually absent((Coluzzi,​ Paolo. "​Minority language planning and micronationalism in Italy: The cases of Lombardy and Friuli."​ Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development 27.6 (2006): 457-471.)). 
 + 
 +===== Learning resources and educational institutions ===== 
 + 
 +  * [[http://​www.lengualombarda.org/​434755821|FAR LOMBARD associazion per la lengua lombarda]], an organisation for the Lombard Language with 15 lessons (with video) on the language, and an online accessable collection of Lombard books, music and videos.  
 +  * [[https://​www.mylanguageexchange.com/​Learn/​Lombard.asp|Learn to Speak Lombard]] makes an effort to bring together students of Lombard with native Lombard speakers. This exchange is not only limited to the linguistic aspects of Lombard but furthermore recognizes its distinct culture. 
 +  * [[http://​inlombard.eu5.net/​scriver_lmo.html|Concise description of Lombard spelling]] 
 +  * [[http://​dizionarilombard.eu5.net/​|Online dictionary]] Italian-Lombard 
 +  * [[https://​www.dropbox.com/​s/​bstqnzbnvji4oep/​La%20Lengua%20Lombarda%20-%20Lezion%201.pdf?​dl=0|short lesson]] on common phrases
  
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languages/lombard_in_italy.1583160487.txt.gz · Last modified: 2020/03/02 15:48 by ydwine

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