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languages:kashub_in_poland [2017/03/23 15:18]
johanneke [European legislation:]
languages:kashub_in_poland [2020/09/08 10:44]
ydwine [Language vitality according to:]
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-====== ​Kashub ​in Poland ======+====== ​Kashubian ​in Poland ======
  
 ==== Language designations:​ ==== ==== Language designations:​ ====
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 ==== Language vitality according to: ==== ==== Language vitality according to: ====
-^ [[http://​www.unesco.org/​languages-atlas/​|UNESCO]] ​         ^ [[https://​www.ethnologue.com/​language/​fry/​|Ethnologue]] ​ ^ [[http://​www.endangeredlanguages.com/​lang/​10425|Endangered Languages]] ​ ^ +^ [[http://​www.unesco.org/​languages-atlas/​|UNESCO]] ​         ^ [[https://​www.ethnologue.com/​language/​csb/​|Ethnologue]] ​ ^ [[http://​www.endangeredlanguages.com/​lang/​3453|Endangered Languages]]  ^  [[https://​glottolog.org/​resource/​languoid/​id/​kash1274|Glottolog]]  ^ 
-| {{ :​endangerment:​orange.png?​nolink |Severely Endangered}} ​ | {{ :​endangerment:​red.png?​nolink |Moribund }}             ​| {{ :​endangerment:​orange.png?​nolink |Vulnerable}} ​                       |+ {{:​endangerment:​orange.png?​nolink|Severely Endangered}} ​ |  {{:​endangerment:​red.png?​nolink|Moribund}} ​  {{:​endangerment:​orange.png?​nolink|Vulnerable}} ​ ​| ​ {{:​endangerment:​yellow.png?​nolink|Threatened}}  ​|
  
 ==== Linguistic aspects: ==== ==== Linguistic aspects: ====
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 Agreement on a unified spelling system for literary Kashubian was reached in 1996 (([[http://​www.mercator-research.eu/​fileadmin/​mercator/​dossiers_pdf/​kashubian_in_poland.pdf|Mercator Regional Dossier: //Kashubian in Poland//, 2004]])) Agreement on a unified spelling system for literary Kashubian was reached in 1996 (([[http://​www.mercator-research.eu/​fileadmin/​mercator/​dossiers_pdf/​kashubian_in_poland.pdf|Mercator Regional Dossier: //Kashubian in Poland//, 2004]]))
  
 +=== quote on linguistic distance to the standardized form ===
 + 
 +
 +//"I started to learn Kashubian at school and then I decided to take the Kashubian final exam. I said to my mum: 'You have to speak Kashubian with me now'. And we started to speak Kashubian. But once my mum said to me that I spoke a different Kashubian and that it would be better for me not to hear her uneducated language. And she refused to speak Kashubian with me"​.//​((Excerpt from Nicole Dolowy-Wybinska,​ ‘Young Kashubs and Language Policy: Between Officialisation and Community’,​ in Policy and Planning for Endangered Languages, by Mari C. Jones (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2015)
 +))
  
  
 ===== Language Area ===== ===== Language Area =====
  
-Kashub ​is a West Slavic language spoken in Northern Poland in the province of Pomerania (województwo pomorskie). Below are shown Kashub ​speaker percentages in the province Województwo Pomorskie ((By courtesy of Jacek Jan Pawlowski))+Kashubian ​is a West Slavic language spoken in Northern Poland in the province of Pomerania (województwo pomorskie). Below are shown Kashubian ​speaker percentages in the province Województwo Pomorskie ((By courtesy of Jacek Jan Pawlowski))
  
 {{url>​https://​www.google.com/​maps/​d/​embed?​mid=1ob5bXsF4VoYfiKDq6U-tHUSqmdY 500px,400px noborder left|Area where Kashub is spoken}} {{url>​https://​www.google.com/​maps/​d/​embed?​mid=1ob5bXsF4VoYfiKDq6U-tHUSqmdY 500px,400px noborder left|Area where Kashub is spoken}}
 ==== Demographics ==== ==== Demographics ====
-  * The 2011 census states that 108.000 people used Kashub ​at home (([[http://​stat.gov.pl/​files/​gfx/​portalinformacyjny/​en/​defaultaktualnosci/​3328/​3/​8/​1/​demographic_yearbook_2014.pdf|Demographic Yearbook of Poland 2014]]))+  * The 2011 census states that 108.000 people used Kashubian ​at home (([[http://​stat.gov.pl/​files/​gfx/​portalinformacyjny/​en/​defaultaktualnosci/​3328/​3/​8/​1/​demographic_yearbook_2014.pdf|Demographic Yearbook of Poland 2014]]))
  
  
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 ===== European legislation:​ ===== ===== European legislation:​ =====
-  * Kashub ​is covered under [[general_information:​glossary_of_terms#​Part III of the European Charter for Regional and Minority languages|Part III]] of the Charter +  * Kashubian ​is covered under [[general_information:​glossary_of_terms#​Part III of the European Charter for Regional and Minority languages|Part III]] of the Charter 
- +  * [[https://​rm.coe.int/​polandpr3-en-docx/1680981491|Download]] the latest Council of Europe report (2019) about the application of the Regional Charter for Minority Languages in Poland. ​
-  * [[https://​rm.coe.int/​CoERMPublicCommonSearchServices/DisplayDCTMContent?​documentId=09000016804a7cb0|Download]] the latest Council of Europe report (2011) about the application of the Regional Charter for Minority Languages in Poland. ​+
  
 ===== National legislation:​ ====== ===== National legislation:​ ======
-Poland'​s [[http://​www.usefoundation.org/​view/​479|Act on National and Ethnic Minorities and the Regional Language (2005)]] states that:  
-  * Kashub is the only //regional language// of Poland; 
-  * the national government should provide Kashub education and promotion with some financial support. ​ 
-  * Kashub may be used to some extent in official communication in those municipalities,​ where Kashub is a so-called //auxiliary language//. For more details, see the [[http://​www.usefoundation.org/​view/​479|act itself]]. 
  
-=== Quote from a Kashub ​speaker: ====+The //Law  on  the  system ​ of  educatio// of  1991 gives pupils the right to maintain their national, ethnic, religious and  linguistic ​ identity. Classes in/on their mother tongue, history and culture are allowed((Mercator Research Centre. (2004). //​Kashubian:​ the Kashubian language in education in Poland.//​Mercator Research Centre. [[https://​www.mercator-research.eu/​fileadmin/​mercator/​documents/​regional_dossiers/​kashubian_in_poland.pdf]].)). 
 + 
 +The //Decree of the Minister of National Education and Sports on conditions and methods for enabling pupils belonging to national minorities and ethnic groups to maintain their national, ethnic and linguistic identity// of 2002((Mercator Research Centre. (2004). //​Kashubian:​ the Kashubian language in education in Poland.//​Mercator Research Centre. [[https://​www.mercator-research.eu/​fileadmin/​mercator/​documents/​regional_dossiers/​kashubian_in_poland.pdf]].)). 
 + 
 +Poland'​s [[http://​ksng.gugik.gov.pl/​english/​files/​act_on_national_minorities.pdf|Act on National and Ethnic Minorities and the Regional Language (2005)]] states that:  
 +  * Kashubian is the only //regional language// of Poland; 
 +  * the national government should provide Kashubian education and promotion with some financial support.  
 +  * Kashubian may be used to some extent in official communication in those municipalities,​ where Kashubian is a so-called //auxiliary language//. For more details, see the [[http://​ksng.gugik.gov.pl/​english/​files/​act_on_national_minorities.pdf|act itself]]. 
 + 
 +=== Quote from a Kashubian ​speaker: ====
 //"​Because this language is important to us, we are thrilled that it is so far Poland'​s only regional language; it gives us many benefits but it also makes us more proud of it. Because a dialect is not the same. A regional language is something more important, something we can be proud of and it can spur us into further action"​.//​((Excerpt from Nicole Dolowy-Wybinska,​ ‘Young Kashubs and Language Policy: Between Officialisation and Community’,​ in Policy and Planning for Endangered Languages, by Mari C. Jones (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2015) //"​Because this language is important to us, we are thrilled that it is so far Poland'​s only regional language; it gives us many benefits but it also makes us more proud of it. Because a dialect is not the same. A regional language is something more important, something we can be proud of and it can spur us into further action"​.//​((Excerpt from Nicole Dolowy-Wybinska,​ ‘Young Kashubs and Language Policy: Between Officialisation and Community’,​ in Policy and Planning for Endangered Languages, by Mari C. Jones (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2015)
 )) ))
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 ====== Education in practice ====== ====== Education in practice ======
  
-===== Linguistic distance to the standardized form ===== + 
-//"I started to learn Kashubian ​at school and then I decided to take the Kashubian ​final examI said to my mum'You have to speak Kashubian with me now'And we started to speak KashubianBut once my mum said to me that I spoke a different Kashubian and that it would be better for me not to hear her uneducated languageAnd she refused to speak Kashubian with me".//((Excerpt from Nicole Dolowy-Wybinska‘Young Kashubs ​and Language PolicyBetween Officialisation and Community’, in Policy and Planning for Endangered Languages, by Mari CJones (CambridgeCambridge University Press, 2015) + 
-)) +Primary schools offering Kashubian classes in 2003/​2004((Mercator Research Centre. (2004). ​//Kashubianthe Kashubian ​language in education in Poland.//Mercator Research Centre. [[https://www.mercator-research.eu/​fileadmin/​mercator/​documents/​regional_dossiers/​kashubian_in_poland.pdf]].)). 
-----+ 
 +|//Subject// | //Number of schools// |// Hours per week// |// Number of children// |  
 +|Kashubian language | 1 | 4 | total: 2,951 | 
 +| |31 | 3 | | 
 +| | 18| 2| | 
 +| |2| 1| | 
 +|Kashubian language ​and regional culture| 3 | 3| total358| 
 +| | 2 | 2 | | 
 +| | 1 | 1 | |  
 +|Regional education with elements of Kashubian language | 4 | 3 | total: 1,358| 
 +| | 5 | 2 | | 
 +| | 4 | 1 | | 
 + 
 +Lower secondary schools offering Kashubian classes ​in 2003/​2004((Mercator Research Centre. (2004). //Kashubianthe Kashubian language in education in Poland.//​Mercator Research Centre. [[https://​www.mercator-research.eu/​fileadmin/​mercator/​documents/​regional_dossiers/​kashubian_in_poland.pdf]].))
 + 
 +|//​Subject//​ | //Number of schools// |// Hours per week// |// Number of children// |  
 +| Kashubian language | 5 | 3 | total: 179 | 
 +| | 1 | 2 | |  
 +| | 1 | 1 | | 
 +|Kashubian language and regional culture | 3 | 2 | total:159 | 
 +|Regional education with elements of Kashubian language | 2 | 2 | total: 108 | 
 +| | 2 | 1 | | 
 + 
  
 ====== Learning resources and educational institutions ====== ====== Learning resources and educational institutions ======
 +
 +  * [[https://​www.omniglot.com/​writing/​kashubian.htm|Omniglot]] with phrases and numbers
 +  * [[http://​www.endangeredlanguages.com/​lang/​3454/​guide|Endangered Languages]] videos
 +  * [[https://​baltoslav.eu/​hulnia/​csb.php?​mova=en|Kashubian words in pictures]], a game
 +  * [[https://​literat.ug.edu.pl/​remus/​0100.htm|dictionary]] (Kashubian-Polish)
  
 ---- ----
 +
  
  
 ====== Mercator'​s Regional Dossier ====== ====== Mercator'​s Regional Dossier ======
  
-[[http://​www.mercator-research.eu/​fileadmin/​mercator/​dossiers_pdf/​kashubian_in_poland.pdf|{{:​images:​dossier.png?​nolink|}}]][[http://​www.mercator-research.eu/​fileadmin/​mercator/​dossiers_pdf/​kashubian_in_poland.pdf|Read more]] about Kashub ​language education in Mercator'​s Regional Dossier.+[[http://​www.mercator-research.eu/​fileadmin/​mercator/​dossiers_pdf/​kashubian_in_poland.pdf|{{:​images:​dossier.png?​nolink|}}]][[https://​www.mercator-research.eu/​fileadmin/​mercator/​documents/​regional_dossiers/​kashubian_in_poland.pdf|Read more]] about Kashubian ​language education in Mercator'​s Regional Dossier ​(2004).
  
languages/kashub_in_poland.txt · Last modified: 2020/09/08 10:44 by ydwine

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