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languages:karaim_in [2020/03/04 10:04]
ydwine [Learning resources and educational institutions]
languages:karaim_in [2020/09/08 10:42] (current)
ydwine [Language vitality according to:]
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   * [[general_information:​glossary_of_terms#​ISO 639-3|ISO 639-3]] standard: kdr   * [[general_information:​glossary_of_terms#​ISO 639-3|ISO 639-3]] standard: kdr
 ==== Language vitality according to: ==== ==== Language vitality according to: ====
-^ [[http://​www.unesco.org/​languages-atlas/​|UNESCO]] ^ [[https://​www.ethnologue.com/​language/​kdr/​|Ethnologue]] ^ [[http://​www.endangeredlanguages.com|Endangered Languages]] ^ +^ [[http://​www.unesco.org/​languages-atlas/​|UNESCO]] ^ [[https://​www.ethnologue.com/​language/​kdr/​|Ethnologue]] ^ [[http://​www.endangeredlanguages.com|Endangered Languages]] ​^  [[https://​glottolog.org/​resource/​languoid/​id/​kara1464|Glottolog]]  ​
-| Crimea: {{ :​endangerment:​black.png?​nolink |Extinct}} West Ukraine: {{ :​endangerment:​red.png?​nolink |Critically Endangered}} Lithuania: {{ :​endangerment:​orange.png?​nolink |Severely Endangered}} ​ | {{ :​endangerment:​red.png?​nolink |All 8b out of 10 (10 means extinct)}} ​ | {{ :​endangerment:​red.png?​nolink |All Critically Endangered}} |+| Crimea: {{ :​endangerment:​black.png?​nolink |Extinct}} West Ukraine: {{ :​endangerment:​red.png?​nolink |Critically Endangered}} Lithuania: {{ :​endangerment:​orange.png?​nolink |Severely Endangered}} ​ | {{ :​endangerment:​red.png?​nolink |All 8b out of 10 (10 means extinct)}} ​ | {{ :​endangerment:​red.png?​nolink |All Critically Endangered}} ​|  {{ :​endangerment:​red.png?​nolink |Nearly extinct}}  ​|
 ==== Linguistic aspects: ===== ==== Linguistic aspects: =====
   * Classification:​ Turkic → Kipchak. For more information,​ see [[http://​glottolog.org/​resource/​languoid/​id/​kara1464| kara1464]] at [[http://​glottolog.org/​|Glottolog]]   * Classification:​ Turkic → Kipchak. For more information,​ see [[http://​glottolog.org/​resource/​languoid/​id/​kara1464| kara1464]] at [[http://​glottolog.org/​|Glottolog]]
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 Today there is a big push for revitalization both within the community and from third parties, such as from Uppsala University in Sweden, where they offer a unique course in Karaim, covering both linguistic and cultural knowledge. (([[http://​www.dergi.tehlikedekidiller.com/​index.php/​TDD/​article/​viewFile/​26/​23|Csató,​ Eva, ‘LITHUANIAN KARAIM ​ LİTVANYA KARAYCASI’,​ Uppsala University, (2012)]])). Beyond this there is a regular Karaim language Summer school and sporadic language learning events provided by the [[http://​karaim.eu/​ |Karaim]] community. Today there is a big push for revitalization both within the community and from third parties, such as from Uppsala University in Sweden, where they offer a unique course in Karaim, covering both linguistic and cultural knowledge. (([[http://​www.dergi.tehlikedekidiller.com/​index.php/​TDD/​article/​viewFile/​26/​23|Csató,​ Eva, ‘LITHUANIAN KARAIM ​ LİTVANYA KARAYCASI’,​ Uppsala University, (2012)]])). Beyond this there is a regular Karaim language Summer school and sporadic language learning events provided by the [[http://​karaim.eu/​ |Karaim]] community.
 ===== Legislation of language education ===== ===== Legislation of language education =====
 +
 +====Lithuania ====
  
 Lithuania'​s [[http://​www3.lrs.lt/​home/​Konstitucija/​Constitution.htm |constitution]] considering minorities is quite accepting, as Article 37 of the Constitution spells out that, “citizens who belong to ethnic communities shall have the right to foster their language, culture and customs” and that according to Article 45, "​national ​ minorities ​ in  Lithuania ​ have the  right  to education in their own language."​ The state however will only finance minority language schools if the school is located in a, "​populous and compact community of the ethnic minority."​ Although Karaim are a recognized minority within Lithuania, their meager numbers are insufficient for traditional schooling in their language. ​ Lithuania'​s [[http://​www3.lrs.lt/​home/​Konstitucija/​Constitution.htm |constitution]] considering minorities is quite accepting, as Article 37 of the Constitution spells out that, “citizens who belong to ethnic communities shall have the right to foster their language, culture and customs” and that according to Article 45, "​national ​ minorities ​ in  Lithuania ​ have the  right  to education in their own language."​ The state however will only finance minority language schools if the school is located in a, "​populous and compact community of the ethnic minority."​ Although Karaim are a recognized minority within Lithuania, their meager numbers are insufficient for traditional schooling in their language. ​
  
-Although in 2000, Lithuania ratified the [[http://​www.coe.int/​en/​web/​minorities/​home?​|Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities of the Council of Europe]], ​to this date, Lithuania ​has not ratified ​the [[http://www.coe.int/en/web/​european-charter-regional-or-minority-languages| European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages]] and so Karaim does not reap any benefit from this legislationPoland, however has ratified the charter and recognized Karaim as being a minority language within its borders and so this small Polish population enjoys protection on a supranational level.+In 2000, Lithuania ratified the [[http://​www.coe.int/​en/​web/​minorities/​home?​|Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities of the Council of Europe]], ​recognising the Karaite minority alongside the RussianPolish, Jewish, Belarussian,​ Tartar, Roma, German and Ukrainian minorities ((2001. //Report on the implementation of the Council of Europe Framework Convention for the Protecttion of National Minorities in the Republic of Lithuania, subject to Article 25 (1) of the Convention//​.[[https://rm.coe.int/CoERMPublicCommonSearchServices/DisplayDCTMContent?​documentId=090000168008b0f3]].)).
  
-At a national levelPoland ​has recognized ​the Karaims as an ethnic minority which permits them the right under Article 35 of their [[http://​www.sejm.gov.pl/prawo/konst/angielski/​kon1.htmconstitution]] to, "to maintain ​and develop their own language, to maintain customs and traditions, and to develop their own culture"​ and " establish educational and cultural institutions"​. Similarly to that in Lithuania, despite ​this legislature,​ the small population of Karaim speakers allows for little governmental attention or support in establishing more concrete public schooling or education.+To this dateLithuania ​has not ratified ​the [[http://​www.coe.int/en/web/european-charter-regional-or-minority-languagesEuropean Charter for Regional or Minority Languages]] and so Karaim does not reap any benefit from this legislation
  
-In the Ukraine, Karaim speakers are believed to be so few or extinct (([[http://​languagesindanger.eu/​book-of-knowledge/​list-of-languages/​karaim/​|Karaim at Languages in Danger'​s Book of Knowledge]])),​ that there is no recognition within legislation.+====Poland ====
  
 +Poland has ratified the [[http://​www.coe.int/​en/​web/​minorities/​home?​|Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities of the Council of Europe]], recognizing the Karaim minority as a religious minority:
 +"​Karaites have lost their knowledge of their mother tongue; it is Karaite religion, originating from Judaism and Islam which distinguishes them" (((2002).// Report submitted by Poland Pursuant to Article 25, paragraph 10f of the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities.//​[[https://​rm.coe.int/​CoERMPublicCommonSearchServices/​DisplayDCTMContent?​documentId=090000168008b123]].)).
 +
 +Poland has also recognized the Karaim minority in the [[https://​www.coe.int/​en/​web/​european-charter-regional-or-minority-languages/​about-the-charter|European Charter for Regnional and Minority Languages]] under [[https://​rm.coe.int/​states-parties-to-the-european-charter-for-regional-or-minority-langua/​168077098c|part II and III]]. You can read the latest report (2019) [[https://​rm.coe.int/​polandpr3-en-docx/​1680981491|here]]
 +
 +At a national level, Poland has recognized the Karaims as an ethnic minority which permits them the right under  [[http://​www.sejm.gov.pl/​prawo/​konst/​angielski/​kon1.htm|Article 35 of their constitution]]:​
 +
 +  * The Republic of Poland shall ensure Polish citizens belonging to national or ethnic minorities the freedom to maintain and develop their own language, to maintain customs and traditions, and to develop their own culture.
 +  * National and ethnic minorities shall have the right to establish educational and cultural institutions,​ institutions designed to protect religious identity, as well as to participate in the resolution of matters connected with their cultural identity.
 +
 +Similarly to that in Lithuania, despite this legislature,​ the small population of Karaim speakers allows for little governmental attention or support in establishing more concrete public schooling or education.
 +
 +====Ukraine====
 +
 +In the Ukraine, Karaim is recognised in the [[https://​www.coe.int/​en/​web/​european-charter-regional-or-minority-languages/​about-the-charter|European Charter for Regional and Minority Languages]] under [[https://​rm.coe.int/​states-parties-to-the-european-charter-for-regional-or-minority-langua/​168077098c|part II]], though Karaim speakers are believed to be few or extinct (([[http://​languagesindanger.eu/​book-of-knowledge/​list-of-languages/​karaim/​|Karaim at Languages in Danger'​s Book of Knowledge]])).
 +
 +In the Ukraine, a law on education passed in September 5, 2017, withdrawing the right to education in a minority language. For primary schools seperate groups can still be taught in the minority languages and in secondary schools minority languages can be taught as a subject if it is a EU language. SOme exceptions are made for ""​indigenous languages",​ which seem to be non-kinstate languages such as Karaim ((Bundeszentrale für politische Bildung. (2017, October 16.). Dokumentation:​ Reaktionen auf die Verabschiedung des neuen Bildungsgesetzes vom 5. September 2017. [[https://​www.bpb.de/​258160/​dokumentation-reaktionen-auf-neues-bildungsgesetz]].)) ((Euromaidan News. (2017, September 19). //​Ukraine’s new education law unleashes international storm over minority language status//. [[http://​euromaidanpress.com/​2017/​09/​19/​ukraines-new-education-law-causes-international-storm-over-minority-language-status/​]].)). The Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe ([[[[general_information:​glossary_of_terms|PACE]]) has been concerned about this law in light of the Framework Convention, and states that the law is "a major impediment to the teaching of national minorities'​ mother tongues"​ ((Parliamentary Assembly. (2017). //​Resolution 2189 (2017): The new Ukrainian law on education: a major impediment to the teaching of national minorities'​ mother tongues.// [[http://​assembly.coe.int/​nw/​xml/​XRef/​Xref-XML2HTML-EN.asp?​fileid=24218&​lang=en]].)).
  
  
 ===== Bodies controlling enforcement of educational laws: ===== ===== Bodies controlling enforcement of educational laws: =====
 +
 +==== Lithuania====
  
 In Lithuania, the Department for National Minorities and Emigrants is responsible for ensuring government language policy is upheld. This institution also mediates between sultural/​educational minority associations and governmental organizations and support (([[http://​alppi.eu/​wp-content/​uploads/​2009/​11/​Andrlik.pdf|Andrlík,​ Jan, ‘Ethnic and Language Policy of the Republic of Lithuania: Basis and Practice’,​ Annual of Language & Politics and Politics of Identity, 3 (2009) In Lithuania, the Department for National Minorities and Emigrants is responsible for ensuring government language policy is upheld. This institution also mediates between sultural/​educational minority associations and governmental organizations and support (([[http://​alppi.eu/​wp-content/​uploads/​2009/​11/​Andrlik.pdf|Andrlík,​ Jan, ‘Ethnic and Language Policy of the Republic of Lithuania: Basis and Practice’,​ Annual of Language & Politics and Politics of Identity, 3 (2009)
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 ===== Learning resources and educational institutions ===== ===== Learning resources and educational institutions =====
  
-See +
   * [[http://​www.endangeredlanguages.com/​lang/​2366/​guide|Endangered Languages]] resources   * [[http://​www.endangeredlanguages.com/​lang/​2366/​guide|Endangered Languages]] resources
   * [[http://​karaim.karaites.free.fr/​index_uk.php|Learn Karaim Language]] with word lists    * [[http://​karaim.karaites.free.fr/​index_uk.php|Learn Karaim Language]] with word lists 
languages/karaim_in.1583312671.txt.gz · Last modified: 2020/03/04 10:04 by ydwine

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