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languages:kalmyk_in_russia

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languages:kalmyk_in_russia [2017/03/17 15:45]
johanneke [A little history:]
languages:kalmyk_in_russia [2020/09/08 10:40]
ydwine [Language vitality:]
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 ==== Language vitality: ==== ==== Language vitality: ====
-^ [[http://​www.unesco.org/​languages-atlas/​|UNESCO]] ^ [[https://​www.ethnologue.com/​language/​fry/​|Ethnologue]] ^ [[http://​www.endangeredlanguages.com/​lang/10425|Endangered Languages]] ^ +^ [[http://​www.unesco.org/​languages-atlas/​|UNESCO]] ^ [[https://​www.ethnologue.com/​language/​xal/​|Ethnologue]] ^ [[http://​www.endangeredlanguages.com/​|Endangered Languages]] ​^  [[https://​glottolog.org/​resource/​languoid/​id/​kalm1244|Glottolog]]  ​
-| {{ :​endangerment:​yellow.png?​nolink |Definitely Endangered}} | {{ :​endangerment:​purple.png?​nolink |Provincial}} | No data available ​|+ {{:​endangerment:​yellow.png?​nolink|Definitely Endangered}} ​  {{:​endangerment:​purple.png?​nolink|Provincial}} ​  ​n.a. ​ |  n.a.  ​|
  
  
 ==== Linguistic aspects: ===== ==== Linguistic aspects: =====
   * Classification:​ Mongolic → Oirat-Khalkha   * Classification:​ Mongolic → Oirat-Khalkha
-  * Script: Cyrillic with six additional symbols (since 1959). Kalmyk used to be written with a Kalmyk script, i.e. since 1648. Until now, only few works in this script have been transliterated into the new script ((Kornusova,​ B. (2006). Developing Language Teaching Strategies: the Kalmyk Experience. In D. Ó Riagáin (Ed.), Voces diversae: lesser-used language education in Europe. Belfast: Cló Ollscoil na Banríona)).+  * Script: Cyrillic with six additional symbols (since 1959). Kalmyk used to be written with a Kalmyk script, i.e. since 1648. Until now, only few works in this script have been transliterated into the new script ((Kornusova,​ B. (2006). Developing Language Teaching Strategies: the Kalmyk Experience. In D. Ó Riagáin (Ed.), Voces diversae: lesser-used language education in Europe. Belfast: Cló Ollscoil na Banríona)). See [[general_information:​russian_legislation#​Legislation concerning Script|Russian legislation concerning script]].
  
 +Listen to the language [[https://​www.youtube.com/​watch?​v=LWGlGZgjpkk|here]]
 ==== Language standardization:​ ===== ==== Language standardization:​ =====
  
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-====== Language and education legislation======+====== Language and education legislation ======
  
 ===== History of language education: ===== ===== History of language education: =====
-At the beginning of the 20th century, the Kalmyks used only the Kalmyk language. After the //October Revolution//​ Kalmyk-Medium schools were opened. The Kalmyks gained access to education and quickly became bilingual (Kalmyk and Russian). Deportation to Siberia in 1943 under Stalin reduced the Kalmyk population by one fifth or half (depending on the source), and among the deported, (who came from all over Russia), Russian was the language of communication. The Kalmyks were allowed to return in 1957. In the 1960's and 70's drastic cuts were made to native-language-education,​ and native-language use was discouraged. The last national Kalmyk-medium school was closed in 1963. In the 1980'​s,​ with the beginning of the //​Perestroika//,​ things started to look better again, and in 1991 the law //On Languages in the Kalmyk Soviet Socialist Republic// (No. 137-IX) was adopted, which states that both Russian and Kalmyk are languages of the state in Kalmykia.((Kornusova,​ B. (2006). Developing Language Teaching Strategies: the Kalmyk Experience. In D. Ó Riagáin (Ed.), Voces diversae: lesser-used language education in Europe. Belfast: Cló Ollscoil na Banríona.)) ​  +At the beginning of the 20th century, the Kalmyks used only the Kalmyk language. After the //October Revolution//​ Kalmyk-Medium schools were opened. The Kalmyks gained access to education and quickly became bilingual (Kalmyk and Russian). Deportation to Siberia in 1943 under Stalin reduced the Kalmyk population by one fifth or half (depending on the source), and among the deported, (who came from all over Russia), Russian was the language of communication. The Kalmyks were allowed to return in 1957, but the deportation had caused a significant loss in the Kalmyk language use((Chetryrova,​ L.(2001). Educational Policy Towards Minorities in Russia: History and Modernity: the case of the Kalmyk Education. In: //Ethnicity and Race: Creating Educational Opportunities Around the Globe 
-===== Legislation of the Russian ​federation: =====+International Advances in Education: Global Initiatives for Equity and Social Justice//. Brown,E. L., and Gibbons, P. E. (Ed.). Information Age Publishing (pp. 3-25).)). In the 1960's and 70's drastic cuts were made to native-language-education,​ and native-language use was discouraged. The last national Kalmyk-medium school was closed in 1963. In the 1980'​s,​ with the beginning of the //​Perestroika//,​ things started to look better again, and in 1991 the law //On Languages in the Kalmyk Soviet Socialist Republic// (No. 137-IX) was adopted, which states that both Russian and Kalmyk are languages of the state in Kalmykia.((Kornusova,​ B. (2006). Developing Language Teaching Strategies: the Kalmyk Experience. In D. Ó Riagáin (Ed.), Voces diversae: lesser-used language education in Europe. Belfast: Cló Ollscoil na Banríona.))  ​ 
 + 
 +===== Legislation of the Russian ​Federation: ===== 
 +The Constitution of Russia states that "​everyone shall have the right to education"​. This is further detailed in the Federal Law on Education. In Russia one has the right to receive education in the native language and the government is required to provide the opportunities for minorities in Russia to learn their language(s). (( The Law Library of Congress (2016). // Constitutional Right to an Education: Russia //. Retrieved January 2017. Available at: https://​www.loc.gov/​law/​help/​constitutional-right-to-an-education/​russia.php#​Constitutional. )) However, several changes [[general_information:​russian_legislation#​Further national legislation|from 2007 on]] have restricted the education of minority languages. 
 + 
 +==Modified: 18-03-2020==
 ===== Federal legislation:​ ===== ===== Federal legislation:​ =====
 The act //On the Languages of Peoples of the Republic of Kalmykia// (No. 137-IX) (1999) states that: The act //On the Languages of Peoples of the Republic of Kalmykia// (No. 137-IX) (1999) states that:
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-====== Education in practice======+====== Education in practice ====== 
 + 
 +In the Nineties, there were two types of schools in Kalmykia:  
 +  * schools with tuition in Russian with Kalmyk as a subject; 
 +  * schools with a Kalmyk curriculum and Russian as a subject ((Gouchinova,​ E. B. (2013). Language and the ethnolinguistic situation. In: //The Kalmyks.// (Lewis, D. C., Trans.) Routledge (pp. 60-77) (Original work published ​ 2006).)). 
 +In 1995 there were 67 classes with tuition in Kalmyk and 83 nursery groups with Kalmyk as medium.  
 ^Data from 2001((Kornusova,​ B. (2006). Developing Language Teaching Strategies: the Kalmyk Experience. In D. Ó Riagáin (Ed.), Voces diversae: lesser-used language education in Europe. Belfast: Cló Ollscoil na Banríona. ^Data from 2001((Kornusova,​ B. (2006). Developing Language Teaching Strategies: the Kalmyk Experience. In D. Ó Riagáin (Ed.), Voces diversae: lesser-used language education in Europe. Belfast: Cló Ollscoil na Banríona.
 )) ^# of children ^# of children learning Kalmyk ^ )) ^# of children ^# of children learning Kalmyk ^
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 ====== Learning resources and educational institutions ====== ====== Learning resources and educational institutions ======
 +
 +  * [[https://​www.omniglot.com/​writing/​kalmyk.htm|Omniglot]] with phrases and numbers
 +
languages/kalmyk_in_russia.txt · Last modified: 2020/09/08 10:40 by ydwine

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