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languages:irish_in_ireland [2020/03/24 07:19]
ydwine [European legislation:]
languages:irish_in_ireland [2020/09/08 10:36] (current)
ydwine [Language vitality according to:]
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 ==== Language vitality according to: ==== ==== Language vitality according to: ====
-^ [[http://​www.unesco.org/​languages-atlas/​|UNESCO]] ^ [[https://​www.ethnologue.com/​language/​gle/​|Ethnologue]] ^ [[http://​www.endangeredlanguages.com/​lang/​3437|Endangered Languages]] ^ + 
-| {{ :​endangerment:​yellow.png?​nolink |definitely endangered}} | {{ :​endangerment:​purple.png?​nolink |}} | {{ :​endangerment:​red.png?​nolink | Endangered}} |+^ [[http://​www.unesco.org/​languages-atlas/​|UNESCO]] ^ [[https://​www.ethnologue.com/​language/​gle/​|Ethnologue]] ^ [[http://​www.endangeredlanguages.com/​lang/​3437|Endangered Languages]] ​^  [[https://​glottolog.org/​resource/​languoid/​id/​iris1253|Glottolog]] ​  
 +| {{ :​endangerment:​yellow.png?​nolink |definitely endangered}} | {{ :​endangerment:​purple.png?​nolink |}} | {{ :​endangerment:​red.png?​nolink | Endangered}} ​|  {{ :​endangerment:​orange.png?​nolink | Shifting}}  ​|
  
  
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 ==== Language Area ==== ==== Language Area ====
 +
 {{https://​upload.wikimedia.org/​wikipedia/​commons/​thumb/​4/​43/​Percentage_stating_they_speak_Irish_daily_outside_the_education_system_in_the_2011_census.png/​340px-Percentage_stating_they_speak_Irish_daily_outside_the_education_system_in_the_2011_census.png }} {{https://​upload.wikimedia.org/​wikipedia/​commons/​thumb/​4/​43/​Percentage_stating_they_speak_Irish_daily_outside_the_education_system_in_the_2011_census.png/​340px-Percentage_stating_they_speak_Irish_daily_outside_the_education_system_in_the_2011_census.png }}
  
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 Map shows percentage of the Irish, stating they speak Irish daily outside the education system. Based on the 2011 census. Map shows percentage of the Irish, stating they speak Irish daily outside the education system. Based on the 2011 census.
 +
 +The Gaeltacht areas are known as:
 +  * Donegal Gaeltacht/ Gaeltacht Dhún na nGall/ Gaeltacht Thír Chonaill
 +  * Mayo Gaeltacht/ Gaeltacht Mhaigh Eo 
 +  * Galway Gaeltacht/ Gaelteacht ​ na Gaillimhe
 +  * Kerry Gaeltacht/ Gaeltacht Chiarraí
 +  * Cork Gaeltacht/ Gaeltacht Chorcaí
 +  * Meath Gaelacht/ Gaeltacht na Mí
 +  * Waterford Gaeltacht/ Gaeltacht Phort Láirge
  
 Map made by SkateTier (Own work), [[http://​www.gnu.org/​copyleft/​fdl.html|GFDL]] or [[http://​creativecommons.org/​licenses/​by-sa/​3.0|CC BY-SA 3.0]], via Wikimedia Commons Map made by SkateTier (Own work), [[http://​www.gnu.org/​copyleft/​fdl.html|GFDL]] or [[http://​creativecommons.org/​licenses/​by-sa/​3.0|CC BY-SA 3.0]], via Wikimedia Commons
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 ====== Language and education legislation ====== ====== Language and education legislation ======
 ===== History of language education: ===== ===== History of language education: =====
-Inscriptions in Ogham from the 4th and 5th centuries are the earliest known forms of the Irish language, pre-dating Old Irish. The period between the 6th and 9th century saw the flourishing of Ireland’s Golden Age. This early period also provided a variety of literature in Old Irish which is considered the earliest vernacular example in Europe. The cumulative effect of colonisation,​ plantation and suppression,​ particularly from the 16th century onwards, led to the elimination of the Irish-speaking aristocracy and their institutions. Additionally,​ catastrophic famine, emigration and epidemics decimated the Irish-speaking rural indigenous population during the 19th century, all factors which led to a language shift to English. Language restoration efforts by voluntary organisations began in the early 20th century (([[http://​www.mercator-research.eu/​fileadmin/​mercator/​dossiers_pdf/​irish_in_ireland_2nd.pdf|Mercator Regional Dossier: The Irish language in education in the Republic of Ireland 2nd]])). With the emergence of the free state in 1921, Irish was made the national language, and outside the Gaeltacht, or traditional heartland of the language, education was seen as the main tool in language revival. In the 1980'​s ​only 3% of secondary students were receiving Irish-medium education. ((Edwards, Vic, ‘Education and the Development of Early Childhood Bilingualism’,​ in Voces Diversae: Lesser-Used Language Education in Europe, ed. by Dónall Ó Riagáin, Belfast Studies in Language, Culture and Politics, 15 (Belfast: Cló Ollscoil na Banríona, 2006)+Inscriptions in Ogham from the 4th and 5th centuries are the earliest known forms of the Irish language, pre-dating Old Irish. The period between the 6th and 9th century saw the flourishing of Ireland’s Golden Age. This early period also provided a variety of literature in Old Irish which is considered the earliest vernacular example in Europe. The cumulative effect of colonisation,​ plantation and suppression,​ particularly from the 16th century onwards, led to the elimination of the Irish-speaking aristocracy and their institutions. Additionally,​ catastrophic famine, emigration and epidemics decimated the Irish-speaking rural indigenous population during the 19th century, all factors which led to a language shift to English. Language restoration efforts by voluntary organisations began in the early 20th century (([[http://​www.mercator-research.eu/​fileadmin/​mercator/​dossiers_pdf/​irish_in_ireland_2nd.pdf|Mercator Regional Dossier: The Irish language in education in the Republic of Ireland 2nd]])). With the emergence of the free state in 1921, Irish was made the national language, and outside the Gaeltacht, or traditional heartland of the language, education was seen as the main tool in language revival. In the 1980's 3% of secondary students were receiving Irish-medium education. ((Edwards, Vic, ‘Education and the Development of Early Childhood Bilingualism’,​ in Voces Diversae: Lesser-Used Language Education in Europe, ed. by Dónall Ó Riagáin, Belfast Studies in Language, Culture and Politics, 15 (Belfast: Cló Ollscoil na Banríona, 2006)
 )) ))
  
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 Irish is an [[general_information:​glossary_of_terms#​Official language:​|official language]] in the European Union. Irish is an [[general_information:​glossary_of_terms#​Official language:​|official language]] in the European Union.
  
-Ireland has not [[general_information:​glossary_of_terms#​Signature of a treaty|signed]] or [[general_information:​glossary_of_terms#​Ratification of a treaty|ratified]] the [[general_information:​glossary_of_terms#​European Charter for Regional and Minority languages| European Charter for Regional or Minorty Languages]]. Moreover, the Charter does not cover official state languages, so Irish would not be covered.+Ireland has not [[general_information:​glossary_of_terms#​Signature of a treaty|signed]] or [[general_information:​glossary_of_terms#​Ratification of a treaty|ratified]] the [[general_information:​glossary_of_terms#​European Charter for Regional and Minority languages| European Charter for Regional or Minorty Languages]]. Moreover, the Charter does not cover official state languages, so Irish would not be included.
  
 ===== National legislation:​ ===== ===== National legislation:​ =====
-The [[http://​www.taoiseach.gov.ie/eng/​Historical_Information/​The_Constitution/​February_2015_-_Constitution_of_Ireland_.pdf|Irish constitution]] states that:+ 
 +The [[http://​www.irishstatutebook.ie/|Irish constitution]], in The State, Art. 8, states that:
   * The Irish language as the national language is the first official language.   * The Irish language as the national language is the first official language.
-  * The English language is recognised as a second official language ​(([[http://​www.taoiseach.gov.ie/​eng/​Historical_Information/​The_Constitution/​February_2015_-_Constitution_of_Ireland_.pdf|Constitution of Ireland 2015]])).+  * The English language is recognised as a second official language.
  
-The Irish language is mentioned in over a hundred acts. Of great importance is [[http://​www.irishstatutebook.ie/​eli/​2003/​act/​32/​enacted/​en/​print.html|The Official Languages Act (2003)]], which deals with, among other things:+The Irish language is mentioned in over a hundred acts. Of great importance is [[http://​www.irishstatutebook.ie/​eli/​2003/​act/​32/​enacted/​en/​html|The Official Languages Act (2003)]], which deals with, among other things:
   * the promotion of the Irish language for official purposes;   * the promotion of the Irish language for official purposes;
   * the establishment and duties of public bodies with respect to the official languages of the state (Irish and English);   * the establishment and duties of public bodies with respect to the official languages of the state (Irish and English);
   * the establishment of an official language commissioner.   * the establishment of an official language commissioner.
 +
 +The Gaeltacht areas also fall under Language Plans set by the Gaeltacht Areas Order and later the [[http://​www.irishstatutebook.ie/​eli/​2012/​act/​34/​schedule/​enacted/​en/​html|Gaeltacht Act 2012]]. In the Act of 2012, areas outside of the original Gaeltachts can be adopted as Líonraí Gaeilge (Irish Language Networks) or Bailte Seirbhísí Gaeltachta (Gaeltacht Service Towns).
 +
  
 ===== Educational legislation:​ ===== ===== Educational legislation:​ =====
-Article 8 proclaims Irish the first national language ​by virtue of being the national ​language. In a judgment delivered in the High Court on 16th April 1999, Ms Justice Laffoy interpreted this to mean that “an obligation to provide for the education of the children of the State at their first stage of formal teaching and instruction must involve an obligation to provide for education in the constitutionally recognized first official language of the State. It follows that the requirement of the rules that teachers teaching in recognized primary schools should have proficiency in Irish is a valid provision under the constitution… also a valid requirement under European Community law…it is neither disproportionate nor discriminatory.+ 
 +=== Premises and Government Statements ===  
 + 
 +The Constitution ​proclaims ​that Irish as the national language ​is the first official ​language. In a judgment delivered in the High Court on 16th April 1999, Ms Justice Laffoy interpreted this to mean that “an obligation to provide for the education of the children of the State at their first stage of formal teaching and instruction must involve an obligation to provide for education in the constitutionally recognized first official language of the State. It follows that the requirement of the rules that teachers teaching in recognized primary schools should have proficiency in Irish is a valid provision under the constitution… also a valid requirement under European Community law…it is neither disproportionate nor discriminatory”((Ó Murchú, H. (2016). //The Irish language in education in the Republic of Ireland //(2nd ed.) (Sterk, R., & van Dongera, R). Mercator Research Centre. Retrieved from [[https://​www.mercator-research.eu/​fileadmin/​mercator/​documents/​regional_dossiers/​irish_in_ireland_2nd.pdf]].)) 
 Matters of school location, entry policy and curriculum are subject to ministerial regulation. Matters of school location, entry policy and curriculum are subject to ministerial regulation.
  
-The Education Act (1993) gives the Irish language a prominent role in education. ​The law differentiates between Gaeltacht areas and other areas in Ireland. Traditionally the Gaeltacht Areas were geographically determined locations, but since the [[http://​www.irishstatutebook.ie/​eli/​2012/act/34/​enacted/​en/​print.html|Gaeltacht ​Act]] (2012), they are defined as areas where Irish is frequently spoken+=== The Education Act === 
 + 
 +The [[http://​www.irishstatutebook.ie/​eli/​1998/act/51/​enacted/​en/​html|Education ​Act]] (1998gives the Irish language a prominent role in education
  
 Article 2 of the Education Act (1998), states, among other things, the following goals: ​ Article 2 of the Education Act (1998), states, among other things, the following goals: ​
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   * plans and co-ordinates the provision of textbooks and aids to learning and teaching through Irish;   * plans and co-ordinates the provision of textbooks and aids to learning and teaching through Irish;
   * advises the National Council for Curriculum and Assessment on matters relating the teaching of and through Irish, in and outside of the Gaeltacht areas.   * advises the National Council for Curriculum and Assessment on matters relating the teaching of and through Irish, in and outside of the Gaeltacht areas.
 +
 +The law differentiates between Gaeltacht areas and other areas in Ireland. Traditionally the Gaeltacht Areas were geographically determined locations, but since the [[languages:​irish_in_ireland#​National legislation:​|Gaeltacht Act]] (2012), they are defined as areas where Irish is frequently spoken. ​
 +
 +=== 20 Year Language Strategy for the Irish Language 2010-2030 ===
 +
 +The [[https://​www.chg.gov.ie/​app/​uploads/​2015/​07/​20-Year-Strategy-English-version.pdf|20 Year Language Strategy for the Irish Language 2010-2030]] is national language policy to increase the number of daily speakers of Irish, ensure visibility of the Irish language and promote the qual standing of both official languages. ​
 +For Education, the strategy aims to:
 +  * enhance and extend ability in Irish more deeply and among larger numbers of people;
 +  * reverse negative attitudes towards Irish language usage and foster positive attitudes in their place;
 +  * expand the available opportunities for use of Irish within the education system by extending Irish as a medium of instruction,​ as well as a subject, and by linking school language learning to the informal use of Irish in recreational,​ cultural and other out-of-school activities.  ​
 +
 +
  
  
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 === Ongoing projects === === Ongoing projects ===
-  * The National Council for Curriculum and Assessment ​ developed AISTEAR (Journey) in 2009, the Early Childhood Curriculum Framework, for children from birth to six years of age. It is based on four themes and is directed at practitioners and parents. [[http://​www.ncca.ie/​en/​Curriculum_and_Assessment/​Early_Childhood_and_Primary_Education/​Early_Childhood_Education/​]] 
  
-  * Comhar na Naíonraí Gaeltachta (Partnership of Gaeltacht Naíonraí) in collaboration with the Dublin Institute of Technology, ​has developed a specific curriculum for language enrichment and development with Gaeltacht children, entitled Loinnir (Radiance/​Brightness),​ and has published a number of books and CDs featuring rhymes and songs from local traditions. ​+  * [[http://​www.comharnaionrai.ie/​english.php|Comhar na Naíonraí Gaeltachta]] (Partnership of Gaeltacht Naíonraí) ​provides early years services (for naíonraí, crèches, breakfast clubs, afterschool services and parent and toddler groups ​in the Gaeltacht areas as well as administration,​ support and training) through the medium of Irish. \\ In collaboration with the Dublin Institute of Technology, ​CNNG developed a specific curriculum for language enrichment and development with Gaeltacht children, entitled Loinnir (Radiance/​Brightness),​ and has published a number of books and CDs featuring rhymes and songs from local traditions. ​ 
 + 
 +  * The National Council for Curriculum and Assessment ​ developed [[https://​ncca.ie/​en/​early-childhood/​aistear/​|AISTEAR]] (Journey) in 2009, the Early Childhood Curriculum Framework, for children from birth to six years of age. It is based on four themes and is directed at practitioners and parents.  
 + 
 ===== Primary education ===== ===== Primary education =====
  
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 ====== Learning resources and educational institutions ====== ====== Learning resources and educational institutions ======
-  ​* Irish Early Childhood Education, CNNG: http://www.comharnaionrai.ie/english.php+ 
 +Organisations and istitutes 
 +  ​[[http://​www.comharnaionrai.ie/​english.php|Comhar Naíonraí na Gaeltachta]]:​ CNNG, Irish Early Childhood Education 
 +  * [[http://www.gael-linn.ie/|Gael Linn]] operates Coláistí Samhraidh (summer colleges) in addition to school-based initiatives and inter-school debates. These summer colleges are organised by many groups during the summer months in all the Gaeltacht areas, usually for three weeks and with students staying with local Irish-speaking families. For most, it is their first encounter with social inter-personal use of Irish.
   * [[https://​www.stpatricks.qld.edu.au/​|St. Patrick’s College]], Thurles, in affiliation with the [[http://​www.ul.ie/​|University of Limerick]], offers Irish and education in combination with either religious or business studies.   * [[https://​www.stpatricks.qld.edu.au/​|St. Patrick’s College]], Thurles, in affiliation with the [[http://​www.ul.ie/​|University of Limerick]], offers Irish and education in combination with either religious or business studies.
-  * Gateway to the Irish language: http://​www.gaeilge.ie/​ 
   * [[http://​www.colaistenabhfiann.ie/?​lang=en|Coláiste na bhFiann]] is a youth organisation which runs summer courses but also organises clubs around the country during the year.    * [[http://​www.colaistenabhfiann.ie/?​lang=en|Coláiste na bhFiann]] is a youth organisation which runs summer courses but also organises clubs around the country during the year. 
-  ​* [[http://​www.gael-linn.ie/|Gael Linn]] operates Coláistí Samhraidh (summer colleges) in addition ​to school-based initiatives and inter-school debates. These summer colleges are organised by many groups during ​the summer months in all the Gaeltacht areas, usually for three weeks and with students staying with local Irish-speaking familiesFor most, it is their first encounter with social inter-personal use of Irish.+ 
 + 
 +Online learning resources 
 +  ​* [[http://​www.gaeilge.ie/|Gaeilge]]: gateway ​to the Irish language  
 +  * [[https://​www.duolingo.com/​enroll/​ga/​en/​Learn-Irish|Duolingo]]:​ language learning application 
 +  * [[https://​www.bitesize.irish/​|Bitesize Irish]]: online learning platform 
 +  * [[http://​multidict.net/​clilstore/​|CLILstore]]:​ online audio-visual learning materials 
 +  * [[https://​www.youtube.com/​watch?​v=Dck0MNqz9QU&​list=PLnyNxQk2MpZZMFcJybdysYK_ehWNNcqnk|Learn ​Irish]]: 6 Youtube lessons by Sian Ó Briain  
 +  * [[https://​www.teanglann.ie/​ga/​|Foras na Gaeilge]]: dictionary English <-> Irish 
  
 ---- ----
 +
  
 ====== Mercator'​s Regional Dossier ====== ====== Mercator'​s Regional Dossier ======
languages/irish_in_ireland.1585030797.txt.gz · Last modified: 2020/03/24 07:19 by ydwine

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