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languages:gaelic_in_scotland [2017/02/16 12:34]
johanneke [Education in practice]
languages:gaelic_in_scotland [2020/03/23 14:57]
ydwine [Education in practice]
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 ==== Language vitality according to: ==== ==== Language vitality according to: ====
-^ [[http://​www.unesco.org/​languages-atlas/​|UNESCO]] ^ [[https://​www.ethnologue.com/​language/​fry/|Ethnologue]] ^ [[http://​www.endangeredlanguages.com/​lang/​10425|Endangered Languages]] ^ +^ [[http://​www.unesco.org/​languages-atlas/​|UNESCO]] ^ [[https://​www.ethnologue.com/​language/​gla|Ethnologue]] ^ [[http://​www.endangeredlanguages.com/​lang/​3049|Endangered Languages]] ^ 
-| {{ :​endangerment:​yellow.png?​nolink |}} | {{ :​endangerment:​purple.png?​nolink |}} | {{ :​endangerment:​orange.png?​nolink |}} |+| {{ :​endangerment:​yellow.png?​nolink |Definitely endangered}} | {{ :​endangerment:​purple.png?​nolink |}} | {{ :​endangerment:​orange.png?​nolink |Vulnerable}} |
  
 ==== Linguistic aspects: ==== ==== Linguistic aspects: ====
   * Indo-European → Celitic. See [[http://​glottolog.org/​resource/​languoid/​id/​scot1245|scot1245]] at [[http://​glottolog.org/​|Glottolog]] for more information.   * Indo-European → Celitic. See [[http://​glottolog.org/​resource/​languoid/​id/​scot1245|scot1245]] at [[http://​glottolog.org/​|Glottolog]] for more information.
  
 +==== Language standardization:​ ====
 ===== Demographics ===== ===== Demographics =====
  
 ==== Language Area ==== ==== Language Area ====
-{{:images:​languages:​scottish_gaelic_in_the_uk:​scots_gaelic_speakers_in_the_2011_census.png?​nolink ​|Scottish Gaelic speakers in Scotland based on the census from 2011}}+{{https://​upload.wikimedia.org/​wikipedia/​commons/​thumb/​3/​3f/​Scots_Gaelic_speakers_in_the_2011_census.png/​323px-Scots_Gaelic_speakers_in_the_2011_census.png |Scottish Gaelic speakers in Scotland based on the census from 2011}}
  
 Gaelic is spoken mainly in the Highlands and Islands of Scotland. It is a Celtic language closely related to [[languages:​irish_in_ireland|Irish]] and Manx, and more distantly related to Welsh, Breton and Cornish. Gaelic is spoken mainly in the Highlands and Islands of Scotland. It is a Celtic language closely related to [[languages:​irish_in_ireland|Irish]] and Manx, and more distantly related to Welsh, Breton and Cornish.
  
 +Map shows the proportion of respondents in the 2011 census aged 3 and above who stated that they can speak Scottish Gaelic.
 Map was created by [[https://​commons.wikimedia.org/​wiki/​User:​SkateTier|SkateTier]],​ and is licensed under [[http://​creativecommons.org/​licenses/​by-sa/​3.0|CC BY-SA 3.0]] Map was created by [[https://​commons.wikimedia.org/​wiki/​User:​SkateTier|SkateTier]],​ and is licensed under [[http://​creativecommons.org/​licenses/​by-sa/​3.0|CC BY-SA 3.0]]
  
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 ====== Language and education legislation ====== ====== Language and education legislation ======
-===== A little history ​===== +===== History of language education: ​===== 
- +Gaelic-medium primary education ​was first introduced in the traditional heartlands of the language in the mid 1970'​s, ​and soon followed in the wake of Gaels who had migrated ​to urban and Lowland areasDue to strong support from Scottish parents for Gaelic medium educationadditional ​Gaelic-medium schools were opened, and in 1999/2000, 59 Gaelic-medium schools existed throughout Scotland. ((Edwards, Vic, ‘Education ​and the Development ​of Early Childhood Bilingualism’,​ in Voces Diversae: Lesser-Used Language Education in Europe, edby Dónall Ó Riagáin, Belfast Studies ​in Language, Culture ​and Politics, 15 (Belfast: Cló Ollscoil na Banríona, 2006) ))
-The Gaelic ​language ​was introduced ​into Scotland by settlers from Ireland ​in the 4th and 5th centuries AD. These settlers were known to the Romans as //​Scotti// ​and it is a measure of their influence on the development ​of the country that it came to be known as ScotlandBy the end of the 10th century ADthe Gaelic ​language had penetrated +
-most areas of the country ​and was used as the language ​of the Crown and GovernmentAnglicizing influences from the south began to erode this situation ​in the 12th century ​and +
-there began a long period of attrition of the language and culture.+
  
 ===== European legislation:​ ===== ===== European legislation:​ =====
-Scottish Gaelic is covered under [[general_information:​glossary_of_terms#​Part III of the European Charter for Regional and Minority languages|Part III]] of the Charter. 
  
-Download the latest [[http://​www.coe.int/​t/​dg4/​education/​minlang/​Report/​EvaluationReports/​UKECRML4_en.pdf|Council of Europe report 2014]] about the United Kingdom.+=== The European Charter for Regional and Minority Languages===
  
-==Modified06-10-2016, 10:59==+Scottish Gaelic is covered under [[general_information:​glossary_of_terms#​Part III of the European Charter for Regional and Minority languages|Part III]] of the [[general_information:​glossary_of_terms#​European Charter for Regional and Minority languages|European Charter for Regional and Minority Languages]]. Download the [[https://​rm.coe.int/​CoERMPublicCommonSearchServices/​DisplayDCTMContent?​documentId=09000016806dcc8d|Council of Europe report 2013]] about the United Kingdom or the [[https://​rm.coe.int/​ukpr5-en-revised/​168077fb40|UK report from 2018]].
  
 +
 +===Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities===
 +
 +The Gaelic language is also covered by the [[general_information:​glossary_of_terms#​Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities|Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities]]. You can read the latest reports of the UK and the Council of Europe [[https://​www.coe.int/​en/​web/​minorities/​united-kingdom|here]].
 ===== National legislation:​ ===== ===== National legislation:​ =====
-[[http://​www.gaidhlig.org.uk/bord/en/the-bord/​about-bord-na-gaidhlig/​gaelic-language-act/|Gaelic Language Act 2005]]: ​+[[http://​www.legislation.gov.uk/asp/2005/7/contents|Gaelic Language Act 2005]]: ​
   * names Gaelic an official language of Scotland; ​   * names Gaelic an official language of Scotland; ​
   * assigns to the [[http://​www.gaidhlig.org.uk/​bord/​|Bòrd na Gàidhlig]] the responsibility to promote Gaelic, monitor its development,​ and to maintain a language plan.   * assigns to the [[http://​www.gaidhlig.org.uk/​bord/​|Bòrd na Gàidhlig]] the responsibility to promote Gaelic, monitor its development,​ and to maintain a language plan.
 +  * defines education a) in the use and understanding of; b) about; or c) by means of the Gaelic language((Scottish Parliament. (2005). //Gaelic Language (Scotland) Act 2005.// Retrieved from [[http://​www.legislation.gov.uk/​asp/​2005/​7/​contents]].)).
 +
 +Every five years, Bòrd na Gàidhlig makes a [[https://​www.gaidhlig.scot/​bord/​the-national-gaelic-language-plan/​|National Gaelic Language Plan]].
 +
  
 ---- ----
  
 ====== Education in practice ====== ====== Education in practice ======
 +
 According to the census from 2011, 2500 children will be learning Gaelic in 2012 and 2013, opposed to 24 children in 1985.((Goalabre,​ Fabienne, ‘Immersion Education and the Revitalisation of Breton and Gaelic as Community Languages’,​ in Policy and Planning for Endangered Languages)). In 2007 MacCaluim (2007) estimated that about 700 learners obtained fluency. According to the census from 2011, 2500 children will be learning Gaelic in 2012 and 2013, opposed to 24 children in 1985.((Goalabre,​ Fabienne, ‘Immersion Education and the Revitalisation of Breton and Gaelic as Community Languages’,​ in Policy and Planning for Endangered Languages)). In 2007 MacCaluim (2007) estimated that about 700 learners obtained fluency.
 +
 +For primary education, in 2018-2019 there are:
 +  * 58 Gaelic Medium Education departments or dedicated schools total
 +  * 7 dedicated Gaelic schools: 3 in Glasgow, and 1 in Inverness, Edinburgh, Lochaber, and Portree
 +  * 3,457 pupils total attending Gaelic Medium Education((Bòrd na Gàidhlig. (n.d.). //Primary Education//​. [[https://​www.gaidhlig.scot/​bord/​education/​primary-education/​]].))
 +
 +For secondary education, in 2018-2019 there are:
 +  * 31 schools in Scotland which offer Gàidhlig for fluent speakers and/or other Gaelic medium subjects;
 +  * 31 schools which offer Gaelic (Learners);
 +  * the subjects English, French, Geography, History, Home Economics, Mathematics,​ Modern Studies, PE, Personal and Social Education, Religious Education, Science and Technology are taught at different levels through the medium of Gaelic((Bòrd na Gàidhlig. (n.d.). //Secondary Education//​. [[https://​www.gaidhlig.scot/​bord/​education/​secondary-education/​]].)). ​
  
 ---- ----
 ====== Learning resources and educational institutions ====== ====== Learning resources and educational institutions ======
 +  * [[https://​learngaelic.scot/​|Learn Gaelic Scot]] (different levels)
 +  * [[http://​www.bbc.co.uk/​alba/​foghlam/​beag_air_bheag/​units/​index.shtml|BBC Beag air bheag] (for beginners)
 +  * [[https://​www.bbc.co.uk/​bitesize/​subjects/​zqnygk7|BBC Bitesize]] ​
 +  * [[https://​www.gaelic4parents.com/​|Gaelic 4 Parents]] with games, stories, audio, homework help and more.
 +  * [[https://​www.open.edu/​openlearn/​languages/​gaelic-modern-scotland/​content-section-0?​active-tab=description-tab|Gealic in modern Scotland]], an open course
 +  * [[http://​www.akerbeltz.org/​index.php?​title=Fuaimean_na_G%C3%A0idhlig|Fuaimean na Gàidhlig]] with sounds of Gealic
 +  * [[http://​www.androchaid.com/​search-androchaid/​8|An Drochaid]] with Gaelic audio with transcripts
 +  * [[http://​www.tobarandualchais.co.uk/​en/​|Tobar an Dualchais Kist O Riches]] with audio from 1930 on
 +
 +
 +
 +----
 +
 +====== Mercator'​s Regional Dossier =====
 +
 +[[http://​www.mercator-research.eu/​fileadmin/​mercator/​dossiers_pdf/​aragonese_in_spain.pdf|{{:​images:​dossier.png?​nolink|}}]][[https://​www.mercator-research.eu/​fileadmin/​mercator/​documents/​regional_dossiers/​Gaelic_2nd.pdf|Read more]] about Gaelic language education in Mercator'​s Regional Dossier (2018).
languages/gaelic_in_scotland.txt · Last modified: 2020/09/08 10:35 by ydwine

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