User Tools

Site Tools


languages:gaelic_in_scotland

Differences

This shows you the differences between two versions of the page.

Link to this comparison view

Both sides previous revision Previous revision
Next revision
Previous revision
languages:gaelic_in_scotland [2017/01/31 15:43]
johanneke [Language Area]
languages:gaelic_in_scotland [2020/09/08 10:35]
ydwine [Language vitality according to:]
Line 7: Line 7:
  
 ==== Language vitality according to: ==== ==== Language vitality according to: ====
-^ [[http://​www.unesco.org/​languages-atlas/​|UNESCO]] ^ [[https://​www.ethnologue.com/​language/​fry/|Ethnologue]] ^ [[http://​www.endangeredlanguages.com/​lang/​10425|Endangered Languages]] ^ +^ [[http://​www.unesco.org/​languages-atlas/​|UNESCO]] ^ [[https://​www.ethnologue.com/​language/​gla|Ethnologue]] ^ [[http://​www.endangeredlanguages.com/​lang/​3049|Endangered Languages]] ​^  [[https://​glottolog.org/​resource/​languoid/​id/​scot1245|Glottolog]]  ​
-| {{ :​endangerment:​yellow.png?​nolink |}} | {{ :​endangerment:​purple.png?​nolink |}} | {{ :​endangerment:​orange.png?​nolink |}} |+| {{ :​endangerment:​yellow.png?​nolink |Definitely endangered}} | {{ :​endangerment:​purple.png?​nolink |}} | {{ :​endangerment:​orange.png?​nolink |Vulnerable}} |  {{ :​endangerment:​orange.png?​nolink |Shifting}}  |
  
 ==== Linguistic aspects: ==== ==== Linguistic aspects: ====
   * Indo-European → Celitic. See [[http://​glottolog.org/​resource/​languoid/​id/​scot1245|scot1245]] at [[http://​glottolog.org/​|Glottolog]] for more information.   * Indo-European → Celitic. See [[http://​glottolog.org/​resource/​languoid/​id/​scot1245|scot1245]] at [[http://​glottolog.org/​|Glottolog]] for more information.
  
 +==== Language standardization:​ ====
 ===== Demographics ===== ===== Demographics =====
  
 ==== Language Area ==== ==== Language Area ====
-{{:images:​languages:​scottish_gaelic_in_the_uk:​scots_gaelic_speakers_in_the_2011_census.png?​nolink ​|Scottish Gaelic speakers in Scotland based on the census from 2011}}+{{https://​upload.wikimedia.org/​wikipedia/​commons/​thumb/​3/​3f/​Scots_Gaelic_speakers_in_the_2011_census.png/​323px-Scots_Gaelic_speakers_in_the_2011_census.png |Scottish Gaelic speakers in Scotland based on the census from 2011}}
  
 Gaelic is spoken mainly in the Highlands and Islands of Scotland. It is a Celtic language closely related to [[languages:​irish_in_ireland|Irish]] and Manx, and more distantly related to Welsh, Breton and Cornish. Gaelic is spoken mainly in the Highlands and Islands of Scotland. It is a Celtic language closely related to [[languages:​irish_in_ireland|Irish]] and Manx, and more distantly related to Welsh, Breton and Cornish.
  
 +Map shows the proportion of respondents in the 2011 census aged 3 and above who stated that they can speak Scottish Gaelic.
 Map was created by [[https://​commons.wikimedia.org/​wiki/​User:​SkateTier|SkateTier]],​ and is licensed under [[http://​creativecommons.org/​licenses/​by-sa/​3.0|CC BY-SA 3.0]] Map was created by [[https://​commons.wikimedia.org/​wiki/​User:​SkateTier|SkateTier]],​ and is licensed under [[http://​creativecommons.org/​licenses/​by-sa/​3.0|CC BY-SA 3.0]]
  
Line 30: Line 32:
  
 ====== Language and education legislation ====== ====== Language and education legislation ======
-===== A little history ​===== +===== History of language education: ​===== 
- +Gaelic-medium primary education ​was first introduced in the traditional heartlands of the language in the mid 1970'​s, ​and soon followed in the wake of Gaels who had migrated ​to urban and Lowland areasDue to strong support from Scottish parents for Gaelic medium educationadditional ​Gaelic-medium schools were opened, and in 1999/2000, 59 Gaelic-medium schools existed throughout Scotland. ((Edwards, Vic, ‘Education ​and the Development ​of Early Childhood Bilingualism’,​ in Voces Diversae: Lesser-Used Language Education in Europe, edby Dónall Ó Riagáin, Belfast Studies ​in Language, Culture ​and Politics, 15 (Belfast: Cló Ollscoil na Banríona, 2006) ))
-The Gaelic ​language ​was introduced ​into Scotland by settlers from Ireland ​in the 4th and 5th centuries AD. These settlers were known to the Romans as //​Scotti// ​and it is a measure of their influence on the development ​of the country that it came to be known as ScotlandBy the end of the 10th century ADthe Gaelic ​language had penetrated +
-most areas of the country ​and was used as the language ​of the Crown and GovernmentAnglicizing influences from the south began to erode this situation ​in the 12th century ​and +
-there began a long period of attrition of the language and culture.+
  
 ===== European legislation:​ ===== ===== European legislation:​ =====
-Scottish Gaelic is covered under [[general_information:​glossary_of_terms#​Part III of the European Charter for Regional and Minority languages|Part III]] of the Charter. 
  
-Download the latest [[http://​www.coe.int/​t/​dg4/​education/​minlang/​Report/​EvaluationReports/​UKECRML4_en.pdf|Council of Europe report 2014]] about the United Kingdom.+=== The European Charter for Regional and Minority Languages===
  
-==Modified06-10-2016, 10:59==+Scottish Gaelic is covered under [[general_information:​glossary_of_terms#​Part III of the European Charter for Regional and Minority languages|Part III]] of the [[general_information:​glossary_of_terms#​European Charter for Regional and Minority languages|European Charter for Regional and Minority Languages]]. Download the [[https://​rm.coe.int/​CoERMPublicCommonSearchServices/​DisplayDCTMContent?​documentId=09000016806dcc8d|Council of Europe report 2013]] about the United Kingdom or the [[https://​rm.coe.int/​ukpr5-en-revised/​168077fb40|UK report from 2018]].
  
 +
 +===Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities===
 +
 +The Gaelic language is also covered by the [[general_information:​glossary_of_terms#​Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities|Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities]]. You can read the latest reports of the UK and the Council of Europe [[https://​www.coe.int/​en/​web/​minorities/​united-kingdom|here]].
 ===== National legislation:​ ===== ===== National legislation:​ =====
-[[http://​www.gaidhlig.org.uk/bord/en/the-bord/​about-bord-na-gaidhlig/​gaelic-language-act/|Gaelic Language Act 2005]]: ​+[[http://​www.legislation.gov.uk/asp/2005/7/contents|Gaelic Language Act 2005]]: ​
   * names Gaelic an official language of Scotland; ​   * names Gaelic an official language of Scotland; ​
   * assigns to the [[http://​www.gaidhlig.org.uk/​bord/​|Bòrd na Gàidhlig]] the responsibility to promote Gaelic, monitor its development,​ and to maintain a language plan.   * assigns to the [[http://​www.gaidhlig.org.uk/​bord/​|Bòrd na Gàidhlig]] the responsibility to promote Gaelic, monitor its development,​ and to maintain a language plan.
 +  * defines education a) in the use and understanding of; b) about; or c) by means of the Gaelic language((Scottish Parliament. (2005). //Gaelic Language (Scotland) Act 2005.// Retrieved from [[http://​www.legislation.gov.uk/​asp/​2005/​7/​contents]].)).
 +
 +Every five years, Bòrd na Gàidhlig makes a [[https://​www.gaidhlig.scot/​bord/​the-national-gaelic-language-plan/​|National Gaelic Language Plan]].
 +
  
 ---- ----
  
 +====== Education in practice ======
 +
 +According to the census from 2011, 2500 children will be learning Gaelic in 2012 and 2013, opposed to 24 children in 1985.((Goalabre,​ Fabienne, ‘Immersion Education and the Revitalisation of Breton and Gaelic as Community Languages’,​ in Policy and Planning for Endangered Languages)). In 2007 MacCaluim (2007) estimated that about 700 learners obtained fluency.
 +
 +For primary education, in 2018-2019 there are:
 +  * 58 Gaelic Medium Education departments or dedicated schools total
 +  * 7 dedicated Gaelic schools: 3 in Glasgow, and 1 in Inverness, Edinburgh, Lochaber, and Portree
 +  * 3,457 pupils total attending Gaelic Medium Education((Bòrd na Gàidhlig. (n.d.). //Primary Education//​. [[https://​www.gaidhlig.scot/​bord/​education/​primary-education/​]].))
 +
 +For secondary education, in 2018-2019 there are:
 +  * 31 schools in Scotland which offer Gàidhlig for fluent speakers and/or other Gaelic medium subjects;
 +  * 31 schools which offer Gaelic (Learners);
 +  * the subjects English, French, Geography, History, Home Economics, Mathematics,​ Modern Studies, PE, Personal and Social Education, Religious Education, Science and Technology are taught at different levels through the medium of Gaelic((Bòrd na Gàidhlig. (n.d.). //Secondary Education//​. [[https://​www.gaidhlig.scot/​bord/​education/​secondary-education/​]].)). ​
 +
 +----
 ====== Learning resources and educational institutions ====== ====== Learning resources and educational institutions ======
 +  * [[https://​learngaelic.scot/​|Learn Gaelic Scot]] (different levels)
 +  * [[http://​www.bbc.co.uk/​alba/​foghlam/​beag_air_bheag/​units/​index.shtml|BBC Beag air bheag] (for beginners)
 +  * [[https://​www.bbc.co.uk/​bitesize/​subjects/​zqnygk7|BBC Bitesize]] ​
 +  * [[https://​www.gaelic4parents.com/​|Gaelic 4 Parents]] with games, stories, audio, homework help and more.
 +  * [[https://​www.open.edu/​openlearn/​languages/​gaelic-modern-scotland/​content-section-0?​active-tab=description-tab|Gealic in modern Scotland]], an open course
 +  * [[http://​www.akerbeltz.org/​index.php?​title=Fuaimean_na_G%C3%A0idhlig|Fuaimean na Gàidhlig]] with sounds of Gealic
 +  * [[http://​www.androchaid.com/​search-androchaid/​8|An Drochaid]] with Gaelic audio with transcripts
 +  * [[http://​www.tobarandualchais.co.uk/​en/​|Tobar an Dualchais Kist O Riches]] with audio from 1930 on
 +
 +
 +
 +----
 +
 +====== Mercator'​s Regional Dossier =====
 +
 +[[http://​www.mercator-research.eu/​fileadmin/​mercator/​dossiers_pdf/​aragonese_in_spain.pdf|{{:​images:​dossier.png?​nolink|}}]][[https://​www.mercator-research.eu/​fileadmin/​mercator/​documents/​regional_dossiers/​Gaelic_2nd.pdf|Read more]] about Gaelic language education in Mercator'​s Regional Dossier (2018).
languages/gaelic_in_scotland.txt · Last modified: 2020/09/08 10:35 by ydwine

Creative Commons License
Mercator's wiki on minority language education by Mercator European Research Centre on Multilingualism and Language Learning
is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
Based on a work at www.mercatorwiki.eu.
Permissions beyond the scope of this license may be available at www.mercator-research.eu.