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languages:frisian_in_the_netherlands [2020/03/23 14:01]
ydwine [Educational material for secondary education]
languages:frisian_in_the_netherlands [2020/10/21 14:29] (current)
ydwine [Educational legislation:]
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 ==== Language vitality: ==== ==== Language vitality: ====
-^ [[http://​www.unesco.org/​languages-atlas/​|UNESCO]] ^ [[https://​www.ethnologue.com/​language/​fry/​|Ethnologue]] ^ [[http://​www.endangeredlanguages.com/​lang/​10425|Endangered Languages]] ^ +^ [[http://​www.unesco.org/​languages-atlas/​|UNESCO]] ^ [[https://​www.ethnologue.com/​language/​fry/​|Ethnologue]] ^ [[http://​www.endangeredlanguages.com/​lang/​10425|Endangered Languages]] ​^  [[https://​glottolog.org/​resource/​languoid/​id/​mode1264|Glottlog]]  ​
-| {{ :​endangerment:​green.png?​nolink |Vulnerable}} | {{ :​endangerment:​purple.png?​nolink |2 out of 10 (10 means extinct)}} | {{ :​endangerment:​green.png?​nolink |Vulnerable}} |+| {{ :​endangerment:​green.png?​nolink |Vulnerable}} | {{ :​endangerment:​purple.png?​nolink |2 out of 10 (10 means extinct)}} | {{ :​endangerment:​green.png?​nolink |Vulnerable}} ​|  -  ​
  
  
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 ==== Language standardization:​ ===== ==== Language standardization:​ =====
-Frisian has a [[general_information:​glossary_of_terms#​Standardized orthography:​|standardized orthography]], ​regulated by the [[https://​www.fryske-akademy.nl/​|Fryske Akademy]]+ 
 +Frisian has a [[general_information:​glossary_of_terms#​Standardized orthography:​|standardized orthography]], ​which is under authority of the Province of Fryslân since 1969. The Province commissions ​the [[https://​www.fryske-akademy.nl/​|Fryske Akademy]] ​to develop and describe the standardized orthography. \\  
 + 
 +=== Historical development === 
 +There have been various formulations of standardized orthography:​((Hoekstra,​ E. (2003). //Frisian: Standardization in progress of a language in decay.// Fryske Akademy. [[https://​pure.knaw.nl/​ws/​portalfiles/​portal/​460646/​108Stannert.pdf]].))((Oppewal,​ T., Gezelle-Meerburg,​ B. Krol, J., Steenmeijer-Wielinga,​ T., Vries. O., Breuker, P., Wind, H., Veenbaas, J., Oldenhof, B., Van der Weg, J.(2006). //Zolang de wind van de wolken waait: Geschiedenis van de Friese literatuur.//​ Uitgeverij Bert Bakker.)) 
 + 
 +** Old-Frisian (c. 1200-1550)** 
 +  * Old Frisian shows shared norms and spelling, though no grammars or dictionaries codified these. 
 +**Mid-Frisian (1550-1800)** 
 +  * Gysbert Japicx (1603–1666) was a Frisian author who formed his own orthagraphy. His writing influenced future orthographies.  
 +**Modern-Frisian (1800-now)** 
 +  * Brothers Joast Hiddes Halbertsma (1789-1869) and Eeltsje Hiddes Halbertsma (1797-1858) published in Frisian and in doing so, formed a orthography close to the vernacular (similar to the orthography of Gysbert Japicx).  
 +  * Harmen Sytstra (1817-1862) developed the //​Iduna-stavering//,​ based on Old-Frisian. 
 +  * In 1879, a broadly adopted standerd was set by the //​Selscip ​ foar  Frysce ​ Taal  in  Skriftekennise//​ (Society for Frisian Language and Literature),​ which adopted an standard orthography (similar to the orthography of the Halbertsma brothers).  
 +  * Waling Dykstra (1821–1914) compiled the first completed Frisian dictionaries (1900, ​ 1903,  1911). 
 +  * In 1945, the //Fryske Akademy// develops a standardized orthography. 
 +  * In 1980, the Province of Fryslân adopts a new standardized orthography,​ also developed and described by the //Fryske Akademy//​. 
 +  * In 2015, the most recent standardized orthography was ratified by the Province of Fryslan. This, like most changes and regulations of a standardized orthography,​ generated a good deal of discussion.((Hoekstra,​ E. (2003). //Frisian: Standardization in progress of a language in decay.// Fryske Akademy. [[https://​pure.knaw.nl/​ws/​portalfiles/​portal/​460646/​108Stannert.pdf]].))((Wolf,​ H. (October 13, 2014). //Argyf Standertwurdlist/​oanpassing Steatestavering//​. Henk Wolf. [[https://​www.henkwolf.nl/​wp-content/​uploads/​staveringswiziging_argyf.pdf]].))
  
  
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 ===== Legislation of language education: ===== ===== Legislation of language education: =====
 ==== European legislation:​ ==== ==== European legislation:​ ====
 +
 +=== European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages ===
 +\\ 
 +The Netherlands [[general_information:​glossary_of_terms#​Signature of a treaty|signed]] and [[general_information:​glossary_of_terms#​Ratification of a treaty|ratified]] the [[general_information:​glossary_of_terms#​European Charter for Regional and Minority languages|European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages]]. ​
   * Frisian is covered under [[general_information:​glossary_of_terms#​Part III of the European Charter for Regional and Minority languages|Part III]] of the [[general_information:​glossary_of_terms#​European Charter for Regional and Minority languages|Charter for Regional and Minority Languages]].   * Frisian is covered under [[general_information:​glossary_of_terms#​Part III of the European Charter for Regional and Minority languages|Part III]] of the [[general_information:​glossary_of_terms#​European Charter for Regional and Minority languages|Charter for Regional and Minority Languages]].
   * For more information about the commitments that the Netherlands have made regarding its minority languages, view the [[http://​www.coe.int/​en/​web/​conventions/​search-on-treaties/​-/​conventions/​treaty/​148/​declarations|Declarations]] page.   * For more information about the commitments that the Netherlands have made regarding its minority languages, view the [[http://​www.coe.int/​en/​web/​conventions/​search-on-treaties/​-/​conventions/​treaty/​148/​declarations|Declarations]] page.
   * Download the latest [[https://​rm.coe.int/​netherlands-pr6-en/​16809501de|report of the Netherlands]] (2019) and [[https://​rm.coe.int/​CoERMPublicCommonSearchServices/​DisplayDCTMContent?​documentId=09000016806d8e13|report of the Council of Europe ]] (2016) for information about how well the Netherlands comply with the Charter'​s regulations.   * Download the latest [[https://​rm.coe.int/​netherlands-pr6-en/​16809501de|report of the Netherlands]] (2019) and [[https://​rm.coe.int/​CoERMPublicCommonSearchServices/​DisplayDCTMContent?​documentId=09000016806d8e13|report of the Council of Europe ]] (2016) for information about how well the Netherlands comply with the Charter'​s regulations.
 +  * The Netherlands covers Frisian education at all levels with the Charter.
 +
 +=== Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities ===
 +\\ 
 +The Netherlands [[general_information:​glossary_of_terms#​Signature of a treaty|signed]] and [[general_information:​glossary_of_terms#​Ratification of a treaty|ratified]] the [[general_information:​glossary_of_terms#​Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities|Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities]]
 +  * Frisian is recognised as national minority in the Netherlands.
 +  * The latest [[https://​www.coe.int/​en/​web/​minorities/​netherlands|report of the Netherlands]]
  
 ==== National legislation:​ ==== ==== National legislation:​ ====
 +
 +The Dutch law makes no mention of Frisian in preschool. The province of Fryslân however, states on its website that it encourages the use of the Frisian language in young children. "The province intends that many kindergartens and daycare centres conduct a bilingual Frisian-Dutch policy"​ ((Website of the Province of Fryslân: [[https://​www.fryslan.frl/​over-de-provincie/​onderwijs_41999/?​previewcode=557718a27d8d7f47831b4cb88b0bc8d9&​preview=2&​contentid=7201&​pub=0000-00-00&​exp=0000-00-00|Frisian language in Education]])). ​
 +
 +The Dutch law on primary education (Dutch: [[http://​wetten.overheid.nl/​BWBR0003420/​2016-08-01|Wet op het Primair Onderwijs]]) states that:
 +  * in primary education, classes are also taught in Frisian (in addition to Dutch and English);
 +  * Schools may request exemption from this.
 +
 +The Dutch law on secondary education (Dutch: [[http://​wetten.overheid.nl/​BWBR0002399/​2016-08-01|Wet op het Voortgezet Onderwijs]]) states that:
 +  * During the first two years of secondary education in the province of Fryslân, Frisian language and culture are part of the curriculum. ​
 +  * The Province of Fryslân prescribes these goals.
 +  * However, the core objectives of the curriculum, which apply tot the whole of the Netherlands,​ must be observed; ​
 +  * Schools may request exemption from teaching Frisian language and culture.
  
 De [[http://​wetten.overheid.nl/​BWBR0034047/​2014-01-01|Wet Gebruik Friese Taal 2014]] states that:  De [[http://​wetten.overheid.nl/​BWBR0034047/​2014-01-01|Wet Gebruik Friese Taal 2014]] states that: 
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 The province of Fryslân has the authority to exempt schools from [[https://​zoek.officielebekendmakingen.nl/​prb-2015-3671.html|certain conditions]] of Frisian education. For this, the province has a policy, [[https://​www.fryslan.frl/​temas/​taalplan-frysk_42014/​|Taalplan Frysk]]. However, the report from the [[https://​www.onderwijsinspectie.nl/​documenten/​themarapporten/​2019/​12/​05/​fries-in-het-primair-en-voortgezet-onderwijs|Inspectorate]] (2019) states that this policy reduces the ambitions of schools for Frisian education. ​ The province of Fryslân has the authority to exempt schools from [[https://​zoek.officielebekendmakingen.nl/​prb-2015-3671.html|certain conditions]] of Frisian education. For this, the province has a policy, [[https://​www.fryslan.frl/​temas/​taalplan-frysk_42014/​|Taalplan Frysk]]. However, the report from the [[https://​www.onderwijsinspectie.nl/​documenten/​themarapporten/​2019/​12/​05/​fries-in-het-primair-en-voortgezet-onderwijs|Inspectorate]] (2019) states that this policy reduces the ambitions of schools for Frisian education. ​
-==== Educational legislation:​ ==== 
-The Dutch law makes no mention of Frisian in preschool. The province of Fryslân however, states on its website that it encourages the use of the Frisian language in young children. "The province intends that many kindergartens and daycare centres conduct a bilingual Frisian-Dutch policy"​ ((Website of the Province of Fryslân: [[https://​www.fryslan.frl/​over-de-provincie/​onderwijs_41999/?​previewcode=557718a27d8d7f47831b4cb88b0bc8d9&​preview=2&​contentid=7201&​pub=0000-00-00&​exp=0000-00-00|Frisian language in Education]])). ​ 
- 
-The Dutch law on primary education (Dutch: [[http://​wetten.overheid.nl/​BWBR0003420/​2016-08-01|Wet op het Primair Onderwijs]]) states that: 
-  * in primary education, classes are also taught in Frisian (in addition to Dutch and English); 
-  * Schools may request exemption from this. 
- 
-The Dutch law on secondary education (Dutch: [[http://​wetten.overheid.nl/​BWBR0002399/​2016-08-01|Wet op het Voortgezet Onderwijs]]) states that: 
-  * During the first two years of secondary education in the province of Fryslân, Frisian language and culture are part of the curriculum. ​ 
-  * The Province of Fryslân prescribes these goals. 
-  * However, the core objectives of the curriculum, which apply tot the whole of the Netherlands,​ must be observed; ​ 
-  * Schools may request exemption from teaching Frisian language and culture. 
- 
-The Netherlands has declared paragraph 8, 2 (ii) of the European Charter for Regional and Minority Languages: "to provide facilities for the study of these languages as university and higher education subjects"​ ((Council of Europe. (2020). //​Reservations and Declarations for Treaty No.148 - European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages: Declarations in force as of today, status as of 23/​03/​2020.//​ Retrieved from [[https://​www.coe.int/​en/​web/​conventions/​search-on-treaties/​-/​conventions/​treaty/​148/​declarations]].)) ​ 
  
 ===== Support structure for education of the language ===== ===== Support structure for education of the language =====
languages/frisian_in_the_netherlands.1584968489.txt.gz · Last modified: 2020/03/23 14:01 by ydwine

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