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languages:frisian_in_the_netherlands [2020/03/23 13:11]
ydwine [Education in practice]
languages:frisian_in_the_netherlands [2020/10/21 14:29]
ydwine [Educational legislation:]
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 ==== Language vitality: ==== ==== Language vitality: ====
-^ [[http://​www.unesco.org/​languages-atlas/​|UNESCO]] ^ [[https://​www.ethnologue.com/​language/​fry/​|Ethnologue]] ^ [[http://​www.endangeredlanguages.com/​lang/​10425|Endangered Languages]] ^ +^ [[http://​www.unesco.org/​languages-atlas/​|UNESCO]] ^ [[https://​www.ethnologue.com/​language/​fry/​|Ethnologue]] ^ [[http://​www.endangeredlanguages.com/​lang/​10425|Endangered Languages]] ​^  [[https://​glottolog.org/​resource/​languoid/​id/​mode1264|Glottlog]]  ​
-| {{ :​endangerment:​green.png?​nolink |Vulnerable}} | {{ :​endangerment:​purple.png?​nolink |2 out of 10 (10 means extinct)}} | {{ :​endangerment:​green.png?​nolink |Vulnerable}} |+| {{ :​endangerment:​green.png?​nolink |Vulnerable}} | {{ :​endangerment:​purple.png?​nolink |2 out of 10 (10 means extinct)}} | {{ :​endangerment:​green.png?​nolink |Vulnerable}} ​|  -  ​
  
  
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 ==== Language standardization:​ ===== ==== Language standardization:​ =====
-Frisian has a [[general_information:​glossary_of_terms#​Standardized orthography:​|standardized orthography]], ​regulated by the [[https://​www.fryske-akademy.nl/​|Fryske Akademy]]+ 
 +Frisian has a [[general_information:​glossary_of_terms#​Standardized orthography:​|standardized orthography]], ​which is under authority of the Province of Fryslân since 1969. The Province commissions ​the [[https://​www.fryske-akademy.nl/​|Fryske Akademy]] ​to develop and describe the standardized orthography. \\  
 + 
 +=== Historical development === 
 +There have been various formulations of standardized orthography:​((Hoekstra,​ E. (2003). //Frisian: Standardization in progress of a language in decay.// Fryske Akademy. [[https://​pure.knaw.nl/​ws/​portalfiles/​portal/​460646/​108Stannert.pdf]].))((Oppewal,​ T., Gezelle-Meerburg,​ B. Krol, J., Steenmeijer-Wielinga,​ T., Vries. O., Breuker, P., Wind, H., Veenbaas, J., Oldenhof, B., Van der Weg, J.(2006). //Zolang de wind van de wolken waait: Geschiedenis van de Friese literatuur.//​ Uitgeverij Bert Bakker.)) 
 + 
 +** Old-Frisian (c. 1200-1550)** 
 +  * Old Frisian shows shared norms and spelling, though no grammars or dictionaries codified these. 
 +**Mid-Frisian (1550-1800)** 
 +  * Gysbert Japicx (1603–1666) was a Frisian author who formed his own orthagraphy. His writing influenced future orthographies.  
 +**Modern-Frisian (1800-now)** 
 +  * Brothers Joast Hiddes Halbertsma (1789-1869) and Eeltsje Hiddes Halbertsma (1797-1858) published in Frisian and in doing so, formed a orthography close to the vernacular (similar to the orthography of Gysbert Japicx).  
 +  * Harmen Sytstra (1817-1862) developed the //​Iduna-stavering//,​ based on Old-Frisian. 
 +  * In 1879, a broadly adopted standerd was set by the //​Selscip ​ foar  Frysce ​ Taal  in  Skriftekennise//​ (Society for Frisian Language and Literature),​ which adopted an standard orthography (similar to the orthography of the Halbertsma brothers).  
 +  * Waling Dykstra (1821–1914) compiled the first completed Frisian dictionaries (1900, ​ 1903,  1911). 
 +  * In 1945, the //Fryske Akademy// develops a standardized orthography. 
 +  * In 1980, the Province of Fryslân adopts a new standardized orthography,​ also developed and described by the //Fryske Akademy//​. 
 +  * In 2015, the most recent standardized orthography was ratified by the Province of Fryslan. This, like most changes and regulations of a standardized orthography,​ generated a good deal of discussion.((Hoekstra,​ E. (2003). //Frisian: Standardization in progress of a language in decay.// Fryske Akademy. [[https://​pure.knaw.nl/​ws/​portalfiles/​portal/​460646/​108Stannert.pdf]].))((Wolf,​ H. (October 13, 2014). //Argyf Standertwurdlist/​oanpassing Steatestavering//​. Henk Wolf. [[https://​www.henkwolf.nl/​wp-content/​uploads/​staveringswiziging_argyf.pdf]].))
  
  
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 ===== Legislation of language education: ===== ===== Legislation of language education: =====
 ==== European legislation:​ ==== ==== European legislation:​ ====
 +
 +=== European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages ===
 +\\ 
 +The Netherlands [[general_information:​glossary_of_terms#​Signature of a treaty|signed]] and [[general_information:​glossary_of_terms#​Ratification of a treaty|ratified]] the [[general_information:​glossary_of_terms#​European Charter for Regional and Minority languages|European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages]]. ​
   * Frisian is covered under [[general_information:​glossary_of_terms#​Part III of the European Charter for Regional and Minority languages|Part III]] of the [[general_information:​glossary_of_terms#​European Charter for Regional and Minority languages|Charter for Regional and Minority Languages]].   * Frisian is covered under [[general_information:​glossary_of_terms#​Part III of the European Charter for Regional and Minority languages|Part III]] of the [[general_information:​glossary_of_terms#​European Charter for Regional and Minority languages|Charter for Regional and Minority Languages]].
   * For more information about the commitments that the Netherlands have made regarding its minority languages, view the [[http://​www.coe.int/​en/​web/​conventions/​search-on-treaties/​-/​conventions/​treaty/​148/​declarations|Declarations]] page.   * For more information about the commitments that the Netherlands have made regarding its minority languages, view the [[http://​www.coe.int/​en/​web/​conventions/​search-on-treaties/​-/​conventions/​treaty/​148/​declarations|Declarations]] page.
   * Download the latest [[https://​rm.coe.int/​netherlands-pr6-en/​16809501de|report of the Netherlands]] (2019) and [[https://​rm.coe.int/​CoERMPublicCommonSearchServices/​DisplayDCTMContent?​documentId=09000016806d8e13|report of the Council of Europe ]] (2016) for information about how well the Netherlands comply with the Charter'​s regulations.   * Download the latest [[https://​rm.coe.int/​netherlands-pr6-en/​16809501de|report of the Netherlands]] (2019) and [[https://​rm.coe.int/​CoERMPublicCommonSearchServices/​DisplayDCTMContent?​documentId=09000016806d8e13|report of the Council of Europe ]] (2016) for information about how well the Netherlands comply with the Charter'​s regulations.
 +  * The Netherlands covers Frisian education at all levels with the Charter.
 +
 +=== Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities ===
 +\\ 
 +The Netherlands [[general_information:​glossary_of_terms#​Signature of a treaty|signed]] and [[general_information:​glossary_of_terms#​Ratification of a treaty|ratified]] the [[general_information:​glossary_of_terms#​Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities|Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities]]
 +  * Frisian is recognised as national minority in the Netherlands.
 +  * The latest [[https://​www.coe.int/​en/​web/​minorities/​netherlands|report of the Netherlands]]
  
 ==== National legislation:​ ==== ==== National legislation:​ ====
 +
 +The Dutch law makes no mention of Frisian in preschool. The province of Fryslân however, states on its website that it encourages the use of the Frisian language in young children. "The province intends that many kindergartens and daycare centres conduct a bilingual Frisian-Dutch policy"​ ((Website of the Province of Fryslân: [[https://​www.fryslan.frl/​over-de-provincie/​onderwijs_41999/?​previewcode=557718a27d8d7f47831b4cb88b0bc8d9&​preview=2&​contentid=7201&​pub=0000-00-00&​exp=0000-00-00|Frisian language in Education]])). ​
 +
 +The Dutch law on primary education (Dutch: [[http://​wetten.overheid.nl/​BWBR0003420/​2016-08-01|Wet op het Primair Onderwijs]]) states that:
 +  * in primary education, classes are also taught in Frisian (in addition to Dutch and English);
 +  * Schools may request exemption from this.
 +
 +The Dutch law on secondary education (Dutch: [[http://​wetten.overheid.nl/​BWBR0002399/​2016-08-01|Wet op het Voortgezet Onderwijs]]) states that:
 +  * During the first two years of secondary education in the province of Fryslân, Frisian language and culture are part of the curriculum. ​
 +  * The Province of Fryslân prescribes these goals.
 +  * However, the core objectives of the curriculum, which apply tot the whole of the Netherlands,​ must be observed; ​
 +  * Schools may request exemption from teaching Frisian language and culture.
  
 De [[http://​wetten.overheid.nl/​BWBR0034047/​2014-01-01|Wet Gebruik Friese Taal 2014]] states that:  De [[http://​wetten.overheid.nl/​BWBR0034047/​2014-01-01|Wet Gebruik Friese Taal 2014]] states that: 
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 The province of Fryslân has the authority to exempt schools from [[https://​zoek.officielebekendmakingen.nl/​prb-2015-3671.html|certain conditions]] of Frisian education. For this, the province has a policy, [[https://​www.fryslan.frl/​temas/​taalplan-frysk_42014/​|Taalplan Frysk]]. However, the report from the [[https://​www.onderwijsinspectie.nl/​documenten/​themarapporten/​2019/​12/​05/​fries-in-het-primair-en-voortgezet-onderwijs|Inspectorate]] (2019) states that this policy reduces the ambitions of schools for Frisian education. ​ The province of Fryslân has the authority to exempt schools from [[https://​zoek.officielebekendmakingen.nl/​prb-2015-3671.html|certain conditions]] of Frisian education. For this, the province has a policy, [[https://​www.fryslan.frl/​temas/​taalplan-frysk_42014/​|Taalplan Frysk]]. However, the report from the [[https://​www.onderwijsinspectie.nl/​documenten/​themarapporten/​2019/​12/​05/​fries-in-het-primair-en-voortgezet-onderwijs|Inspectorate]] (2019) states that this policy reduces the ambitions of schools for Frisian education. ​
-==== Educational legislation:​ ==== 
-The Dutch law makes no mention of Frisian in preschool. The province of Fryslân however, states on its website that it encourages the use of the Frisian language in young children. "The province intends that many kindergartens and daycare centres conduct a bilingual Frisian-Dutch policy"​ ((Website of the Province of Fryslân: [[https://​www.fryslan.frl/​over-de-provincie/​onderwijs_41999/?​previewcode=557718a27d8d7f47831b4cb88b0bc8d9&​preview=2&​contentid=7201&​pub=0000-00-00&​exp=0000-00-00|Frisian language in Education]])). ​ 
- 
-The Dutch law on primary education (Dutch: [[http://​wetten.overheid.nl/​BWBR0003420/​2016-08-01|Wet op het Primair Onderwijs]]) states that: 
-  * in primary education, classes are also taught in Frisian (in addition to Dutch and English); 
-  * Schools may request exemption from this. 
- 
-The Dutch law on secondary education (Dutch: [[http://​wetten.overheid.nl/​BWBR0002399/​2016-08-01|Wet op het Voortgezet Onderwijs]]) states that: 
-  * During the first two years of secondary education in the province of Fryslân, Frisian language and culture are part of the curriculum. ​ 
-  * The Province of Fryslân prescribes these goals. 
-  * However, the core objectives of the curriculum, which apply tot the whole of the Netherlands,​ must be observed; ​ 
-  * Schools may request exemption from teaching Frisian language and culture. 
- 
-The Netherlands has declared paragraph 8, 2 (ii) of the European Charter for Regional and Minority Languages: "to provide facilities for the study of these languages as university and higher education subjects"​ ((Council of Europe. (2020). //​Reservations and Declarations for Treaty No.148 - European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages: Declarations in force as of today, status as of 23/​03/​2020.//​ Retrieved from [[https://​www.coe.int/​en/​web/​conventions/​search-on-treaties/​-/​conventions/​treaty/​148/​declarations]].)) ​ 
  
 ===== Support structure for education of the language ===== ===== Support structure for education of the language =====
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 A new [[https://​kurrikulum.frl/​nl/​|curriculum]] with defined goals for Frisian will be developed ((Inspectie van het Onderwijs. (2019). //Sizzen is neat, mar dwaan is in ding: Frysk yn it primêr en fuortset ûnderwiis.//​. Retrieved from [[https://​www.onderwijsinspectie.nl/​documenten/​themarapporten/​2019/​12/​05/​fries-in-het-primair-en-voortgezet-onderwijs]].)). A new [[https://​kurrikulum.frl/​nl/​|curriculum]] with defined goals for Frisian will be developed ((Inspectie van het Onderwijs. (2019). //Sizzen is neat, mar dwaan is in ding: Frysk yn it primêr en fuortset ûnderwiis.//​. Retrieved from [[https://​www.onderwijsinspectie.nl/​documenten/​themarapporten/​2019/​12/​05/​fries-in-het-primair-en-voortgezet-onderwijs]].)).
  
-Below an overview of all the primary schools (N=428) in Fryslân and their exemptions given by the Province (2018)((Inspectie van het Onderwijs. (2019). //Sizzen is neat, mar dwaan is in ding: Frysk yn it primêr en fuortset ûnderwiis.//​. Retrieved from [[https://​www.onderwijsinspectie.nl/​documenten/​themarapporten/​2019/​12/​05/​fries-in-het-primair-en-voortgezet-onderwijs]].)).. Excemptions are possible for writing, reading, language perception, speaking, listening, and attitude.+Below an overview of all the primary schools (N=428) in Fryslân and their exemptions given by the Province (2018)((Inspectie van het Onderwijs. (2019). //Sizzen is neat, mar dwaan is in ding: Frysk yn it primêr en fuortset ûnderwiis.//​. Retrieved from [[https://​www.onderwijsinspectie.nl/​documenten/​themarapporten/​2019/​12/​05/​fries-in-het-primair-en-voortgezet-onderwijs]].)). Excemptions are possible for writing, reading, language perception, speaking, listening, and attitude.
  
-^ schools ^ exemption for ^ +^ schools ​^ language profile ​^ exemption for ^ 
-| 114 | - | +| 114 | A | - | 
-| 84 | writing | +| 84 | B | writing | 
-| 96 | writing and reading | +| 96 | C | writing and reading | 
-| 6 | writing, reading, language perception | +| 6 | D | writing, reading, language perception | 
-| 66 | writing, reading, language perception, speaking | +| 66 | E | writing, reading, language perception, speaking | 
-| 47 | writing, reading, language perception, speaking, listening | +| 47 | F | writing, reading, language perception, speaking, listening | 
-| 15 | everything |+| 15 | G | everything| 
 +<​sub>​* These are the schools outside of the Frisian speaking area: the Wadden Islands and the Stellingwerven. </​sub>​
  
  
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 === Teacher skills === === Teacher skills ===
-  * 20% of the teachers ​is not qualified ​to teach Frisian. Of 28% the qualification is unknown.((Inspectie van het Onderwijs (2010)[[https://​www.onderwijsinspectie.nl/​binaries/​onderwijsinspectie/​documenten/​rapporten/2010/11/24/tussen-wens-en-werkelijkheid/​Tussen+wens+en+werkelijkheid.pdf|Tussen wens en werkelijkheid]]))+  * 34,9% of the primary ​teachers ​has no qualification ​to teach Frisian ((Inspectie van het Onderwijs(2019). //Sizzen is neat, mar dwaan is in ding: Frysk yn it primêr en fuortset ûnderwiis.//​. Retrieved from [[https://​www.onderwijsinspectie.nl/​documenten/​themarapporten/2019/12/05/fries-in-het-primair-en-voortgezet-onderwijs]].))
  
 === Student accomplishments === === Student accomplishments ===
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 To improve Frisian language education in primary school, an experiment, set up by the [[https://​www.fryske-akademy.nl/​|Fryske Akademy]], started in 1997 with trilingual education: seven primary schools committed themselves to use Frisian and English also as mediums of instruction.((Inspectie van het Onderwijs (2010)[[https://​www.onderwijsinspectie.nl/​binaries/​onderwijsinspectie/​documenten/​rapporten/​2010/​11/​24/​tussen-wens-en-werkelijkheid/​Tussen+wens+en+werkelijkheid.pdf/​|Tussen wens en werkelijkheid]])). To improve Frisian language education in primary school, an experiment, set up by the [[https://​www.fryske-akademy.nl/​|Fryske Akademy]], started in 1997 with trilingual education: seven primary schools committed themselves to use Frisian and English also as mediums of instruction.((Inspectie van het Onderwijs (2010)[[https://​www.onderwijsinspectie.nl/​binaries/​onderwijsinspectie/​documenten/​rapporten/​2010/​11/​24/​tussen-wens-en-werkelijkheid/​Tussen+wens+en+werkelijkheid.pdf/​|Tussen wens en werkelijkheid]])).
  
-In 2016 73, out of 428 primary schools, were included in the "​trilingual ​netowrk". However, only 30 of those were at the time officially certified. The degree to which Frisian is used as language of instruction varies among schools. Estimates vary between 1.25-3.5 hours per week and 10-25% of the time ((European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages, [[https://​search.coe.int/​cm/​Pages/​result_details.aspx?​ObjectId=09000016806b7598#​_Toc456345386|+In 2016 73, out of 428 primary schools, were included in the "​trilingual ​network". However, only 30 of those were at the time officially certified. The degree to which Frisian is used as language of instruction varies among schools. Estimates vary between 1.25-3.5 hours per week and 10-25% of the time ((European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages, [[https://​search.coe.int/​cm/​Pages/​result_details.aspx?​ObjectId=09000016806b7598#​_Toc456345386|
 Fifth report of the Committee of Experts in respect of the Netherlands,​ 2016]])). Fifth report of the Committee of Experts in respect of the Netherlands,​ 2016]])).
 ==== Secondary education ==== ==== Secondary education ====
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   * 59% offered Frisian as an examination subject ((Inspectie van het Onderwijs (2010)[[https://​www.onderwijsinspectie.nl/​binaries/​onderwijsinspectie/​documenten/​rapporten/​2010/​11/​24/​tussen-wens-en-werkelijkheid/​Tussen+wens+en+werkelijkheid.pdf|Tussen wens en werkelijkheid]])).   * 59% offered Frisian as an examination subject ((Inspectie van het Onderwijs (2010)[[https://​www.onderwijsinspectie.nl/​binaries/​onderwijsinspectie/​documenten/​rapporten/​2010/​11/​24/​tussen-wens-en-werkelijkheid/​Tussen+wens+en+werkelijkheid.pdf|Tussen wens en werkelijkheid]])).
  
-In its last report on Frisian language education in the Netherlands,​ the committee of experts from the Council of Europe stated that most schools (73 out of 87) offer Frisian for only one hour per week and for one year only. Only 15 schools teach it after the first year. Since the 2013-2014 school year, the Ministry of Education, Culture and Science provides € 65.000 annually for teaching Frisian at secondary schools. Frisian is an optional exam subject and approximately 50 pupils choose it every year ((European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages, [[https://​search.coe.int/​cm/​Pages/​result_details.aspx?​ObjectId=09000016806b7598#​_Toc456345386|+In its last report ​(2016) ​on Frisian language education in the Netherlands,​ the committee of experts from the Council of Europe stated that most schools (73 out of 87) offer Frisian for only one hour per week and for one year only. Only 15 schools teach it after the first year. Since the 2013-2014 school year, the Ministry of Education, Culture and Science provides € 65.000 annually for teaching Frisian at secondary schools. Frisian is an optional exam subject and approximately 50 pupils choose it every year ((European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages, [[https://​search.coe.int/​cm/​Pages/​result_details.aspx?​ObjectId=09000016806b7598#​_Toc456345386|
 Fifth report of the Committee of Experts in respect of the Netherlands,​ 2016]])).  ​ Fifth report of the Committee of Experts in respect of the Netherlands,​ 2016]])).  ​
 +
 +=== Teacher qualification ===
 +According to the report of the Inespectorate (2019), 22% of the teachers had no qualification to teach Frisian ((Inspectie van het Onderwijs. (2019). //Sizzen is neat, mar dwaan is in ding: Frysk yn it primêr en fuortset ûnderwiis.//​. Retrieved from [[https://​www.onderwijsinspectie.nl/​documenten/​themarapporten/​2019/​12/​05/​fries-in-het-primair-en-voortgezet-onderwijs]].)). ​
  
 === Trilingual primary education === === Trilingual primary education ===
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 Learning materials for primary and seconday education are commissioned and subsidized by the Province of Fryslân. The past few years digital materials have been developed. All materials are mainly being developed mainly by [[http://​afuk.frl/​|Afûk]] and [[https://​www.cedin.nl/​|Cedin]] ((Retrieved from the [[https://​www.fryslan.frl/​over-de-provincie/​onderwijs_41999/​|Province of Fryslân website]])). Learning materials for primary and seconday education are commissioned and subsidized by the Province of Fryslân. The past few years digital materials have been developed. All materials are mainly being developed mainly by [[http://​afuk.frl/​|Afûk]] and [[https://​www.cedin.nl/​|Cedin]] ((Retrieved from the [[https://​www.fryslan.frl/​over-de-provincie/​onderwijs_41999/​|Province of Fryslân website]])).
 ===== Adult education ===== ===== Adult education =====
-  * Frisian language courses for adults are organised by the [[http://​afuk.frl/​|Afûk]].  +  * The [[http://​afuk.frl/​|Afûk]] ​offers Frisian language courses for adults  
-  * The three-year bachelor [[http://​www.rug.nl/​bachelors/​minorities-multilingualism/​|Minorities and Multilingualism]] ​offers ​optional courses that focus on Frisian.+  * The [[https://​www.nhlstenden.com|NHL Stenden]] offers Frisian teacher training . 
 +  * The [[https://​www.rug.nl/​|University of Groningen]] has the Frisian department, which offers the three-year bachelor [[http://​www.rug.nl/​bachelors/​minorities-multilingualism/​|Minorities and Multilingualism]] ​with optional courses that focus on Frisian. There is also an educational master degree for Frisian. 
 +  * The [[https://​www.uva.nl/​discipline/​talen/​fries/​fries.html?​1584966849707|University of Amsterdam]] offers a minor Frisian.
  
  
 ===== Learning resources and educational institutions ===== ===== Learning resources and educational institutions =====
  
-  * [[http://www.fryske-akademy.nl/|Fryske Akademy]], studies ​the Frisian ​language, develops ​online ​dictionaries,​ e.g.:   +  * [[http://taalweb.frl/|Taalweb Frysk]]: tools for writing Frisian made by the Fryske Akademy 
-    * [[http://taalweb.frl/|Taalweb Frysk]]: tools for writing ​Frisian. +  * [[https://​frisianmooc.com/​|Frisian ​MOOC]]: mass open online ​course made by de Fryske Akademy and Afûk. 
-  * [[http://example.com|Dingtiid]], the official body that inspects compliance with //De Wet Gebruik Friese Taal//.+  * [[https://​www.futurelearn.com/​courses/​frisian|Frisian MOOC]] mass open online course made by de University of Groningen. 
 +  * [[http://edufrysk.nl/|Edufrysk]] online learning environment ​for Frisian 
 +  * [[http://gamefrysk.nl/|GameFrysk]] Frisian language games 
 +  * [[https://www.languagesandnumbers.com/how-to-count-in-west-frisian/en/​fry/​|numbers]] 
 + 
 +Institutes and organisations:​ 
 +  * [[http://​www.fryske-akademy.nl/​|Fryske Akademy]], studies the Frisian language, develops online dictionaries,​
   * [[http://​afuk.frl/​|Afûk]] organizes language courses, publishes Frisian literature and sets up language awareness campiagns, e.g.:   * [[http://​afuk.frl/​|Afûk]] organizes language courses, publishes Frisian literature and sets up language awareness campiagns, e.g.:
     * [[http://​www.praatmarfrysk.nl/​|Praat mar Frysk]]: campaign to promote the Frisian language.     * [[http://​www.praatmarfrysk.nl/​|Praat mar Frysk]]: campaign to promote the Frisian language.
 +  * [[http://​example.com|Dingtiid]],​ the official body that inspects compliance with //De Wet Gebruik Friese Taal//.
   * [[https://​www.tresoar.nl/​|Tresoar]]:​ Frisian historic and linguistic centre.   * [[https://​www.tresoar.nl/​|Tresoar]]:​ Frisian historic and linguistic centre.
-  * [[http://​www.omropfryslan.nl/​|Omrop Fryslân]], Frisian broadcasting service.+  * [[http://​www.omropfryslan.nl/​|Omrop Fryslân]], Frisian ​news, radio and TV broadcasting service. 
 +  * [[https://​www.fryskebeweging.frl/​|De Ried fan de Fryske Beweging]] Frisian lobby group, which produces e.g. 
 +    * [[https://​www.itnijs.frl]] news website in Frisian 
  
  
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   * [[http://​www.tomke.nl/​|The Tomke project]], started by [[http://​afuk.frl/​|Afûk]] in 1997 to stimulate Frisian language development in preschoolers. Tomke is a small Frisian boy that appears in tv adventures, books and a website.   * [[http://​www.tomke.nl/​|The Tomke project]], started by [[http://​afuk.frl/​|Afûk]] in 1997 to stimulate Frisian language development in preschoolers. Tomke is a small Frisian boy that appears in tv adventures, books and a website.
   *  [[https://​itunes.apple.com/​nl/​app/​lytskes/​id876321717?​mt=8/​|Lytskes]],​ iPad app by  [[http://​afuk.frl/​|Afûk]].   *  [[https://​itunes.apple.com/​nl/​app/​lytskes/​id876321717?​mt=8/​|Lytskes]],​ iPad app by  [[http://​afuk.frl/​|Afûk]].
-  * [[http://www.tomke.nl/alders/nijs-en-aktiviteiten/nije-app-hantsjes-yn-e-hichte-berneferskes-app-friese-kinderliedjes-app|Hantsjes yn 'e hichte]], iPad app by [[http://​afuk.frl/​|Afûk]].+  * [[https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?​id=nl.afuk.hantsjesynehichte&​hl=nl|Hantsjes yn 'e hichte]], iPad app by [[http://​afuk.frl/​|Afûk]].
  
 ==== Educational material for primary education ==== ==== Educational material for primary education ====
   * [[http://​www.studiof.nl/​|Studio F]]: a Frisian language teaching method. Their digital learning environment can be viewed online.   * [[http://​www.studiof.nl/​|Studio F]]: a Frisian language teaching method. Their digital learning environment can be viewed online.
-  * [[http://​www.skoal.tv/​|Frisian School TV]]+  * [[http://​www.skoal.tv/​|SkoalTV]]: ​Frisian School TV
   * [[http://​www.cito.nl/​onderwijs/​primair%20onderwijs/​cito_volgsysteem_po/​alle_producten/​begrijpend_lezen_fries|Begripend lêzen Frysk]]: CITO examination to test Frisian reading skills in the highest grade of primary education.   * [[http://​www.cito.nl/​onderwijs/​primair%20onderwijs/​cito_volgsysteem_po/​alle_producten/​begrijpend_lezen_fries|Begripend lêzen Frysk]]: CITO examination to test Frisian reading skills in the highest grade of primary education.
 +  * [[https://​www.lezenvoordelijst.nl/​fries/​|Lezen voor de lijst]]: list with books sorted on level with information and assignments for both student and teacher. ​
  
 ==== Educational material for secondary education ==== ==== Educational material for secondary education ====
-  * [[https://itunes.apple.com/nl/app/​searje-36/​id933212962?​mt=8|Searje 36]]: digital learning method to learn Frisian in the first year of secondary education.+  * [[https://searje36.edufrysk.nl/inloggen|Searje 36]]: digital learning method to learn Frisian in the first year of secondary education.
   * [[http://​www.linkk.tv/​|Linkk]]:​ Frisian magazine and television.   * [[http://​www.linkk.tv/​|Linkk]]:​ Frisian magazine and television.
  
languages/frisian_in_the_netherlands.txt · Last modified: 2020/10/21 14:29 by ydwine

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