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languages:flemish_sign_language_in_belgium [2020/03/23 07:39]
ydwine [Language standardisation]
languages:flemish_sign_language_in_belgium [2020/03/23 10:11]
ydwine [National/Regional Legislation]
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 ==== International Legislation ==== ==== International Legislation ====
  
-Flemish Sign Language is not protected by the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages, since it was (and still isthought that sign languages are artificial instead ​of natural languages, that they don't have long historical background and aren't different from the official language ​of the stateThe Convention on the rights of persons with disabilities is the first international human rights convention that explicitly considers sign languages to be languages ((De Meulder, M. (2016). Artikel 24 van het VN Verdrag inzake de Rechten van Personen met een Handicap en dove gebarentaligen:​ naar een nieuwe interpretatie van het begrip '​inclusief onderwijs'​. In G. Van Hoven, A. Schippers, M. Cardol & E. De Schauwer (Eds.), Disability Studies in de Lage Landen. Antwerpen: Garant Uitgeverij.)). ​+===EU Resolutions=== 
 + 
 +On June 17, 1988, the European Parliament signed the [[http://​www.policy.hu/​flora/​ressign2.htm|Resolution on Sign Languages 1988]] and the [[https://​eur-lex.europa.eu/​legal-content/​EN/​TXT/?​uri=CELEX%3A51998IP0985|Resolution on Sign Languages 1998]] ten years later which both called for the recognition,​ improvement and support of sign languages.  
 +  
 +===European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages=== 
 + 
 +Flemish Sign Language is not protected by the [[general_information:​glossary_of_terms#​European Charter for Regional and Minority languages|European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages]] (1992), as Belgium has not [[general_information:​glossary_of_terms#​Signature ​of a treaty|signed]] nor [[general_information:​glossary_of_terms#​Ratification ​of a treaty|ratified]] ​the Charter 
 + 
 +=== UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities === 
 + 
 +The [[https://​www.un.org/​development/​desa/​disabilities/​convention-on-the-rights-of-persons-with-disabilities.html|Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities]] (2006) ​is the first international human rights convention that explicitly considers sign languages to be languages ​(Article 21)((De Meulder, M. (2016). Artikel 24 van het VN Verdrag inzake de Rechten van Personen met een Handicap en dove gebarentaligen:​ naar een nieuwe interpretatie van het begrip '​inclusief onderwijs'​. In G. Van Hoven, A. Schippers, M. Cardol & E. De Schauwer (Eds.), Disability Studies in de Lage Landen. Antwerpen: Garant Uitgeverij.)). ​This Convention is [[general_information:​glossary_of_terms#​Signature of a treaty|signed]] (2007) and [[general_information:​glossary_of_terms#​Ratification of a treaty|ratified]] (2009) by Belgium ((United Nations. // Chapter IV Human Rights.// Retrieved March 23, 2020 from [[https://​treaties.un.org/​Pages/​ViewDetails.aspx?​src=TREATY&​mtdsg_no=IV-15&​chapter=4&​clang=_en]].))
  
 ==== National/​Regional Legislation ==== ==== National/​Regional Legislation ====
  
-In 2003, French Belgian Sign Language was recognised by the Parliament of Francophone Community in Belgium, which improved the reputation of sign language in Flanders as well. In 2004, the first deaf Member of the Flemish Parliament was elected, and in the same year the //Deaf Action Front// was founded, which had as its main aim the recognition of VGT. A petition was started, which was submitted to the Flemish Parliament in 2005. On April 26, 2006, the decree regarding the recognition of the Flemish Sign Language ([[http://​www.adviesvgt.be/​sites/​default/​files/​geco%C3%B6rdineerde%20versie%20decreet%20Vlaamse%20Gebarentaal%20%28laatste%20wijziging%2028%20maart%202014%29_0.pdf|decreet houdende de erkenning van de Vlaamse Gebarentaal]]was adopted by the Flemish Parliament. The election of the first deaf MP might have influenced this decision, since the MPs were now confronted with VGT on a daily basis. In addition, this positive development may have been influenced by the language’s namegiving in 2001, //Vlaamse Gebarentaal//,​ which gave it clear linguistic boundaries, and by the fact that the Flemish Parliament became in charge of the language (Citation needed). ​+In 2003, French Belgian Sign Language was recognised by the Parliament of Francophone Community in Belgium, which improved the reputation of sign language in Flanders as well. In 2004, the first deaf Member of the Flemish Parliament was elected, and in the same year the //Deaf Action Front// ​(Doof Actie Front) ​was founded, which had as its main aim the recognition of VGT((Doof Actie Front, Vlaams GebarentaalCentrum vzw, Federatie van Vlaamse DovenOrganisaties vzw (Fevlado). //​Toelichting erkenning Vlaamse Gebarentaal//​. Retrieved from [[http://​www.sociaalcultureel.be/​doc/​Doc_GEBAAR/​vgt%20verzoekschrift.pdf]].)). A petition was started, which was submitted to the Flemish Parliament in 2005 ((Adviescommissie Vlaamse Gebarentaal. //Waarom wordt Vlaamse Gebarentaal erkend en is er een decreet Vlaamse Gebarentaal?​ //. Retrieved from [[http://​www.adviesvgt.be/​waarom-wordt-vlaamse-gebarentaal-erkend-en-is-er-een-decreet-vlaamse-gebarentaal]].)) ​. On April 26, 2006, [[http://​www.adviesvgt.be/​sites/​default/​files/​geco%C3%B6rdineerde%20versie%20decreet%20Vlaamse%20Gebarentaal%20%28laatste%20wijziging%2028%20maart%202014%29_0.pdf|the decree]] regarding the recognition of the Flemish Sign Language ​was adopted by the Flemish Parliament. The election of the first deaf MP (Helga Stevens ) might have influenced this decision, since the MPs were now confronted with VGT on a daily basis. In addition, this positive development may have been influenced by the language’s namegiving in 2001, //Vlaamse Gebarentaal//​((Van Herreweghe,​M. & Vermeerbergen,​ M. (2009). Flemish Sign Language standardisation. //Current Issues in Language Planning//, 10(3), 308–326. DOI: 10.1080/​14664200903154874.)), which gave it clear linguistic boundaries, and by the fact that the Flemish Parliament became in charge of the language (Citation needed). ​
  
 In the decree regarding the recognition of VGT In the decree regarding the recognition of VGT
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 The decree does not create educational linguistic rights: the rights of deaf children to acquire VGT from an early age, to be educated in VGT if they want to and for their parents to be supported in learning VGT are almost non-existent ((Van Herreweghe, M., De Meulder, M., Vermeerbergen,​ M. (2015). From Erasure to Recognition (and Back Again?): The Case of Flemish Sign Language. In M. Marschark & P.E. Spencer (Eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Deaf Studies in Language)). The decree does not create educational linguistic rights: the rights of deaf children to acquire VGT from an early age, to be educated in VGT if they want to and for their parents to be supported in learning VGT are almost non-existent ((Van Herreweghe, M., De Meulder, M., Vermeerbergen,​ M. (2015). From Erasure to Recognition (and Back Again?): The Case of Flemish Sign Language. In M. Marschark & P.E. Spencer (Eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Deaf Studies in Language)).
  
-Belgium has the most segregated education system in Europe. However, in 2014 the M-decree stated that special education continues to exist, but that inclusive education is the first option. This decree came into force in the schoolyear of 2015.+Belgium has the most segregated education system in Europe ​((European Commission. (2017). //Belgian schools: bringing equal opportunities to immigrant children//. Retrieved from [[https://​ec.europa.eu/​research/​infocentre/​article_en.cfm?&​artid=43376&​caller=other]].)). However, in 2014 the M-decree stated that special education continues to exist, but that inclusive education is the first option. This decree came into force in the schoolyear of 2015.
 Regarding VGT interpreters in education, in 2013 the right of students in primary, secondary, higher and adult education to have a VGT interpreter for 70% of class hours was established in the decree on Education (Onderwijsdecreet ODXXIII). Since the schoolyear of 2015, this right has increased to 100% of class hours ((De Meulder, M. (2016). Artikel 24 van het VN Verdrag inzake de Rechten van Personen met een Handicap en dove gebarentaligen:​ naar een nieuwe interpretatie van het begrip '​inclusief onderwijs'​. In G. Van Hoven, A. Schippers, M. Cardol & E. De Schauwer (Eds.), Disability Studies in de Lage Landen. Antwerpen: Garant Uitgeverij.)). Regarding VGT interpreters in education, in 2013 the right of students in primary, secondary, higher and adult education to have a VGT interpreter for 70% of class hours was established in the decree on Education (Onderwijsdecreet ODXXIII). Since the schoolyear of 2015, this right has increased to 100% of class hours ((De Meulder, M. (2016). Artikel 24 van het VN Verdrag inzake de Rechten van Personen met een Handicap en dove gebarentaligen:​ naar een nieuwe interpretatie van het begrip '​inclusief onderwijs'​. In G. Van Hoven, A. Schippers, M. Cardol & E. De Schauwer (Eds.), Disability Studies in de Lage Landen. Antwerpen: Garant Uitgeverij.)).
 ===== Support structure for education of the language: ===== ===== Support structure for education of the language: =====
languages/flemish_sign_language_in_belgium.txt · Last modified: 2020/09/08 10:23 by ydwine

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