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languages:dutch_sign_language_in_nl [2020/02/17 14:50]
ydwine [Language vitality according to:]
languages:dutch_sign_language_in_nl [2021/05/25 17:07]
ydwine [Legislation on European Level]
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 ==== Language vitality according to: ==== ==== Language vitality according to: ====
-^ [[http://​www.unesco.org/​languages-atlas/​|UNESCO]] ^ [[https://​www.ethnologue.com/​language/​fry/|Ethnologue]] ^ [[http://​www.endangeredlanguages.com/​lang/​10425|Endangered Languages]] ^ +^ [[http://​www.unesco.org/​languages-atlas/​|UNESCO]] ^ [[https://​www.ethnologue.com/​language/​dse|Ethnologue]] ^ [[http://​www.endangeredlanguages.com/​lang/​7354|Endangered Languages]] ​^  [[https://​glottolog.org/​resource/​languoid/​id/​dutc1253|Glottolog]]  ​
-| - | {{:​endangerment:​blue.png?​nolink|Developing}} | {{:​endangerment:​orange.png?​nolink|Vunerable}} |+   {{:​endangerment:​blue.png?​nolink|Developing}} ​  {{:​endangerment:​orange.png?​nolink|Vunerable}} ​ ​| ​ {{:​endangerment:​yellow.png?​nolink|Threatened}}  ​
 ==== Linguistic aspects: ===== ==== Linguistic aspects: =====
   * Classification:​ Sign Language → French Sign Language family. For more information,​ see [[http://​glottolog.org/​resource/​languoid/​id/​dutc1253|dutc1253]] at [[http://​glottolog.org/​|Glottolog]]   * Classification:​ Sign Language → French Sign Language family. For more information,​ see [[http://​glottolog.org/​resource/​languoid/​id/​dutc1253|dutc1253]] at [[http://​glottolog.org/​|Glottolog]]
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 ==== Language Area ==== ==== Language Area ====
  
-Dutch Sign Language is spoken in the Netherlands,​ Aruba, Curacao, and Suriname. There are seven dialects in the Netherlands,​ five of which developed around the original deaf schools in Groningen, Amsterdam, The Hague, Rotterdam and '​s-Hertogenbosch (([[https://​www.ethnologue.com/​language/​dse|Dutch Sign Language at Ethnologue]])).+Dutch Sign Language is spoken in the Netherlands,​ Aruba, Curacao, and Suriname. ​\\ There are seven dialects in the Netherlands,​ five of which developed around the original deaf schools in Groningen, Amsterdam, ​Voorburg/The Hague, Rotterdamand Sint Michielsgestel/​'​s-Hertogenbosch ((Eberhard, David M., Gary F. Simons, and Charles D. Fennig (eds.) (2020). //Sign Language of the Netherlands//​. Ethnologue: Languages of the World. SIL International.[[https://​www.ethnologue.com/​language/​dse]])) ((Doof. (n.d.) //De Nederlandse Gebarentaal.//​ Retrieved July 1, 2020 from [[https://​www.doof.nl/​hoorbibliotheek/​taal/​gebarentaal/​]].)).
  
 ==== Speaker numbers ==== ==== Speaker numbers ====
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 ===== Legislation of language education ===== ===== Legislation of language education =====
-The European Union has recognized sign languages as languages in 1988 and advised the member states to officially recognize sign languages ((Schermer, T. (2012). Sign Language Planning in the Netherlands between 1980 and 2010. Sign Language Studies, 12:4, 467-493.)). Since 2003 sign languages are recognized as minority languages in the European Union. 
  
-Dutch Sign Language is not recognized by the government of the Netherlands((Schermer,​ T. (2012). Sign Language Planning in the Netherlands between 1980 and 2010. Sign Language Studies, 12:4, 467-493.)) (([[https://​www.ethnologue.com/​language/​dse|Dutch Sign Language at Ethnologue]])). In 1997, the government stated that a standardized lexicon was a condition to recognize NGT. This basic lexicon was developed((Schermer,​ T. (2012). Sign Language Planning in the Netherlands between 1980 and 2010. Sign Language Studies, 12:4, 467-493.)), but legal recognition has not happened. A private member'​s bill to recognize NGT legally is currently in progress (([[https://​www.dovenschap.nl/​doven-blij-wetsvoorstel-erkenning-nederlandse-gebarentaal/​|Doven blij met wetsvoorstel erkenning Nederlandse Gebarentaal,​ article in Dovenschap]])).+==== Legislation on European Level ====
  
-Despite ​the lack of official legal recognition,​ there are a few implicit legal recognitions((Schermer, T. (2012). Sign Language Planning in the Netherlands between 1980 and 2010. Sign Language Studies, 12:4, 467-493.))((Schermer, T., Vermeerbergen,​ M. (2004). Nederlandse Gebarentaal en Vlaamse Gebarentaalzussen ​of verre nichtjes? Ons Erfdeel, 47:4, 569-575.)). For example, there is a right to education in NGT and to have sign interpreters,​ and organizations that do research on NGT receive subsidy. The establishment of bachelor'​s-degree programs ​in NGT teacher and interpreter training(([[https://​www.studiekeuze.hu.nl/​opleidingen/​Leraar-Nederlandse-Gebarentaal-Tolk-NGT?​_ga=2.260691343.305129541.1496066849-261961291.1495361723|Website Hogeschool Utrecht, become an interpreter]])) can also be seen as a form of recognition.+The European Union has recognized sign languages as languages in 1988 and advised ​the member states to officially recognize sign languages ​((Schermer, T. (2012). Sign Language Planning in the Netherlands between 1980 and 2010. Sign Language Studies, 12:4, 467-493.)). ​In 2003 the [[general_information:glossary_of_terms#​Parliamentary Assembly ​of the Council of Europe (PACE)|PACE]] recognised ​sign languages ​in their [[general_information:sign_language_legislation|Recommendation 1598 (2003): Protection of sign languages in the member states of the Council of Europe]].
  
 +
 +The Netherlands has not recognised NGT as a minority language under the [[general_information:​international_legislation#​Charter for Regional and Minority languages (1992)|Charter for Regional and Minority languages]],​ though there have been various calls and petitions to do so. ((Commissie Nederlandse gebarentaal (1997). //Meer dan een Gebaar.// [[https://​assets.kennislink.nl/​system/​files/​000/​153/​591/​original/​rapport_mdg_1997.pdf?​1351677122]].))((Ministerie van Binnenlandse Zaken Nederland. (2019). //Zesde rapportage van Nederland: 2015-2018. Onder artikel 15, eerste lid, van het Europees Handvest voor regionale talen of talen van minderheden.//​ [[https://​rm.coe.int/​netherlandspr6-nl/​1680950079]].))((Dovenschap (2017). // Tijd voor erkenning van de Nederlandse Gebarentaal//​. Petities. [[https://​petities.nl/​petitions/​tijd-voor-erkenning-van-de-nederlandse-gebarentaal?​locale=cat]].))((Dovenschap (2018, Oct 18). //Notitie erkenning Nederlandse gebarentaal//​. https://​www.dovenschap.nl/​wp-content/​uploads/​2019/​03/​20181018-Notitie-erkenning-NGT.pdf))
 +
 +==== Legislation on National Level ====
 +
 +In 1997, the government stated that a standardized lexicon was a condition to recognize NGT. This basic lexicon was developed((Schermer,​ T. (2012). Sign Language Planning in the Netherlands between 1980 and 2010. Sign Language Studies, 12:4, 467-493.)) After years of seeking recognition,​ the language was legally recognized as official language by the Dutch Parliament in September 2020 ((Parlementaire Monitor (2020). //​Stemmingen in verband met het Voorstel van wet van de leden Kuiken, Dik-Faber en Van Eijs ter erkenning van de Nederlandse gebarentaal (Wet erkenning Nederlandse gebarentaal)(34562).//​ Retrieved from [[ https://​www.parlementairemonitor.nl/​9353000/​1/​j9vvij5epmj1ey0/​vlcasv2jyxwm#​p3]].)),​ which was approved by the Senate on October 13 2020. ((Nederlands Gebarencentrum (2021). //Erkenning Nederlandse Gebarentaal nu officiëel.//​ Nederlands Gebarencentrum. [[https://​www.gebarencentrum.nl/​Erkenning%20NGT]].)) The law came in force on March 16, 2021.
 +
 +Before this official legal recognition,​ there were a few implicit legal recognitions((Schermer,​ T. (2012). Sign Language Planning in the Netherlands between 1980 and 2010. Sign Language Studies, 12:4, 467-493.))((Schermer,​ T., Vermeerbergen,​ M. (2004). Nederlandse Gebarentaal en Vlaamse Gebarentaal:​ zussen of verre nichtjes? Ons Erfdeel, 47:4, 569-575.)). For example, there is a right to education in NGT and to have sign interpreters,​ and organizations that do research on NGT receive subsidy. Moreover, there is the establishment of bachelor'​s-degree programs in NGT teacher and interpreter training(([[https://​www.studiekeuze.hu.nl/​opleidingen/​Leraar-Nederlandse-Gebarentaal-Tolk-NGT?​_ga=2.260691343.305129541.1496066849-261961291.1495361723|Website Hogeschool Utrecht, become an interpreter]])).
 +
 +=== De Wet erkenning Nederlandse Gebarentaal ===
 +
 +The[[https://​zoek.officielebekendmakingen.nl/​stb-2021-165.html|Wet erkenning Nederlandse Gebarentaal]] (Eng: Law recognition of Dutch Sign Language) came into force on March 16, 2021. The law recognizes NGT and states the language can be used in administrative and legal communication. The law also establishes a Advisory Council, which shall advise to promote the use of NGT in society. ​
 +
 +=== Wet op de expertisecentra ===
 +
 +The [[https://​wetten.overheid.nl/​BWBR0003549/​2021-01-01|Wet op expertisecentra]] (1982) states that the entire school career of '​auditive or communicative handicapped'​ students should be improved by supportive measures, it also states that students from primary level to tertiary level can be supported by an interperter. ​ Additionaly,​ the [[https://​wetten.overheid.nl/​BWBR0025979/​2013-12-19/#​Bijlage1|Besluit kerndoelen WEC]] (Eng: Decree Curricular Targets WEC), signed in 2009, states that NGT can be offered as primary language, and makes bilingual education possible with NGT as primary language and Dutch as secondary language. ​
 ===== Bodies controlling enforcement of educational laws: ===== ===== Bodies controlling enforcement of educational laws: =====
  
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-==== Schools for deaf pupils====+==== Education ==== 
 + 
 +Since 2012, the //wet passend onderwijs// (Eng: law for fitted education) is in place, which has the motto "​regular where possible, special when needed"​((Translated from: "​Regulier als het kan, speciaal als het moet"​)) ((De Boer, A. A., Van der Worp, A. J. (2016). //De impact van passend onderwijs op het SO/SBO en het VSO//. Nationaal Regieorgaan Onderwijsonderzoek. [[https://​www.nro.nl/​wp-content/​uploads/​2016/​12/​De-impact-van-passend-onderwijs-op-het-SO-SBO-en-het-VSO.pdf]].)). For pupils with hearing problems, this means a Committee of Research will decide, with the advice of school and parents, in which form of education the child will be placed, and for how long.((Kentalis (n.d.). //Aanmelden onderwijs.//​ Koninklijke Kentalis. [[https://​www.kentalis.nl/​aanmelden-onderwijs]].)) There are three options: light, medium and intensive:​((Kentalis (n.d.). //Aanmelden onderwijs.//​ Koninklijke Kentalis. [[https://​www.kentalis.nl/​aanmelden-onderwijs]].)) 
 + 
 +  * Light: \\ Pupils attend a regular school with a special needs assistant;​((Kentalis (n.d.). //Aanmelden onderwijs.//​ Koninklijke Kentalis. [[https://​www.kentalis.nl/​aanmelden-onderwijs]].)) 
 +  * Medium: \\ Pupils attend a regular school with a special needs unit, and where more children with hearing issues come together (minimum of 8-10 children on average);​((Kentalis (n.d.). //​School-in-school & mediumsetting.//​ Koninklijke Kentalis. [[https://​www.kentalis.nl/​over-kentalis/​onderwijs-bij-kentalis/​school-school-mediumsetting]].)) 
 +  * Intensive: \\ Pupils attend a school specialised in their needs. This can be a school for the Deaf or a so-called "​school in school",​ where a small school for the Deaf is placed within a regular school. ((Kentalis (n.d.). //Aanmelden onderwijs.//​ Koninklijke Kentalis. [[https://​www.kentalis.nl/​aanmelden-onderwijs]].))((Kentalis (n.d.). //​School-in-school & mediumsetting.//​ Koninklijke Kentalis. [[https://​www.kentalis.nl/​over-kentalis/​onderwijs-bij-kentalis/​school-school-mediumsetting]].)) 
 + 
 +==== Schools for deaf pupils ==== 
 + 
 +There are several schools for the Deaf in the Netherlands:​
   * The Institute for the Deaf in '​s-Hertogenbosch,​ the deaf school with the history of the strictest oral policy, started implementing NGT in education in 1997. It currently provides primary and secondary education, ​   * The Institute for the Deaf in '​s-Hertogenbosch,​ the deaf school with the history of the strictest oral policy, started implementing NGT in education in 1997. It currently provides primary and secondary education, ​
   * The Rudolf Mees Institute in Rotterdam started bilingual projects and teamteaching in 1991. The first grades are bilingual, while the higher grades focus more on NGT,    * The Rudolf Mees Institute in Rotterdam started bilingual projects and teamteaching in 1991. The first grades are bilingual, while the higher grades focus more on NGT, 
   * The J.C. Ammanschool in Amsterdam provides primary and secondary education. It applies teamteaching and teaches subjects in both Dutch and NGT. They focus on the content and communication instead of the specific language and have developed their own colour system for writing in Dutch. ​   * The J.C. Ammanschool in Amsterdam provides primary and secondary education. It applies teamteaching and teaches subjects in both Dutch and NGT. They focus on the content and communication instead of the specific language and have developed their own colour system for writing in Dutch. ​
-  * The Guyot Institute for the Deaf in Groningen provides primary education for deaf and hearing impaired children. It was the first to adopt a bilingual policy and hired more deaf signers as teachers and other personnel. From the beginning of the curriculum, mostly NGT is used and teamteaching is applied here as well.+  * The Guyot Institute for the Deaf in Groningen provides primary ​and secondary ​education for deaf and hearing impaired children. It was the first to adopt a bilingual policy and hired more deaf signers as teachers and other personnel. It is the only one that offers bilingual secondary education at HAVO level (higher general secondary education) in the Netherlands. From the beginning of the curriculum, mostly NGT is used and teamteaching is applied here as well. The school also offers accomodation for pupils who live too far away to commute every day. In 2015, due to  the [[languages:​dutch_sign_language_in_nl#​Education|educational reform]] which aims to place all students in regular schools, the Dutch State wanted to close this accomodation,​ as it was not seen as an essential expense for education ((Doof. (2015, December 15). //​Doveninternaat Haren dicht//. [[https://​www.doof.nl/​algemeen/​doveninternaat-haren-dicht-29422/​]].))((NOS. (2016, February 10). //Dekker blijft bij sluiting doveninternaat//​. [[https://​nos.nl/​artikel/​2085965-dekker-blijft-bij-sluiting-doveninternaat.html]].)),​ however, this was rejected by a motion in the  Dutch Parliament in 2016.((RTV Noord (February 18, 2016). //​Doveninternaat in Haren blijft open .// [[https://​www.rtvnoord.nl/​nieuws/​159749/​Doveninternaat-in-Haren-blijft-open]].))
   * The Institute for the Deaf Effatha in The Hague provides provide primary, secondary, and adult education. It already establishes a basis for bilingualism in preschool. The first grades are bilingual, and the pupils learn Dutch using their first language, NGT((Soeters,​ M. (1999). Gebaren uit de doofpot. Studie naar doven, tweetaligheid en de ontwikkeling van toetsmateriaal in de Nederlandse Gebarentaal. Retrieved from: [[http://​arno.uvt.nl/​show.cgi?​fid=89473]]))((Schermer,​ T. (2012). Sign Language Planning in the Netherlands between 1980 and 2010. Sign Language Studies, 12:4, 467-493.)).   * The Institute for the Deaf Effatha in The Hague provides provide primary, secondary, and adult education. It already establishes a basis for bilingualism in preschool. The first grades are bilingual, and the pupils learn Dutch using their first language, NGT((Soeters,​ M. (1999). Gebaren uit de doofpot. Studie naar doven, tweetaligheid en de ontwikkeling van toetsmateriaal in de Nederlandse Gebarentaal. Retrieved from: [[http://​arno.uvt.nl/​show.cgi?​fid=89473]]))((Schermer,​ T. (2012). Sign Language Planning in the Netherlands between 1980 and 2010. Sign Language Studies, 12:4, 467-493.)).
 +
 +
 +[[https://​simea.nl/​homepage|Siméa]] is the umbrella organisation for the four educational organisations for //cluster 2 schools,// wich are schools specialised for pupils who have a linguistic development disorder, who are hearing impaired or deaf.
 +
 ==== Outcomes of education: ==== ==== Outcomes of education: ====
 So far, there has been no research on the question whether bilingual education for deaf students gives better learning outcomes than other forms of education. It is known that the proficiency in NGT of deaf children with hearing parents lags behind on that of deaf children with deaf parents, but it is unclear why this is the case((Knoors,​ H. (2011). Herijkt taalbeleid voor dove kinderen. VHZ. Retrieved from: [[http://​www.audcom.nl/​vhz/​artikelen/​2012/​2011-4-artikel-knoors.pdf]])). So far, there has been no research on the question whether bilingual education for deaf students gives better learning outcomes than other forms of education. It is known that the proficiency in NGT of deaf children with hearing parents lags behind on that of deaf children with deaf parents, but it is unclear why this is the case((Knoors,​ H. (2011). Herijkt taalbeleid voor dove kinderen. VHZ. Retrieved from: [[http://​www.audcom.nl/​vhz/​artikelen/​2012/​2011-4-artikel-knoors.pdf]])).
languages/dutch_sign_language_in_nl.txt · Last modified: 2021/05/25 17:07 by ydwine

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