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languages:breton_in_france [2021/05/26 14:50]
ydwine [Educational legislation:]
languages:breton_in_france [2021/05/27 11:06]
ydwine [Mercator's Regional Dossier]
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 ====== Breton in France ====== ====== Breton in France ======
 +
 +
  
 ==== Language designations:​ ==== ==== Language designations:​ ====
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 ==== Language standardization:​ ===== ==== Language standardization:​ =====
 +
 +Breton knows several varieties, with Kerneveg, Leoneg, Tregerieg in  the  centre ​ and  north-western ​ part  of  Brittany, and Gwenedeg in  the  southeast.((Vallerie,​ M. & Bouroulleg, C. (2019). Breton: The Breton language in education in France (3rd ed.). Mercator European Research Centre on Multilingualismand Language Learning.))
  
 Breton has known many ortographies,​ and Breton has been written since the 6th Century((Ager,​ S. (n.d.). //Breton (ar brezhoneg)//​. Omniglot. [[https://​www.omniglot.com/​writing/​breton.htm]].)). In the 20th century, several orthographies were produced to try encompass the regional variations an/or to create a universal spelling: ​ Breton has known many ortographies,​ and Breton has been written since the 6th Century((Ager,​ S. (n.d.). //Breton (ar brezhoneg)//​. Omniglot. [[https://​www.omniglot.com/​writing/​breton.htm]].)). In the 20th century, several orthographies were produced to try encompass the regional variations an/or to create a universal spelling: ​
-  * 1941:​Peurunvan('​totally unified'​)/​zedacheg (for digraph zh)/KLTGw (the four variety'​s initials). ​ +  * 1941: Peurunvan('​totally unified'​)/​zedacheg (for digraph zh)/KLTGw (the four variety'​s initials). 
 +    * Peurunvan remains the most popular in use((Gutman,​ A. & Avanzati, B. (2013).//​Breton.//​The Language Gulper.[[http://​www.languagesgulper.com/​eng/​Breton.html]].)) ((Ager, S. (n.d.). //Breton (ar brezhoneg)//​. Omniglot. [[https://​www.omniglot.com/​writing/​breton.htm]].)).
   * 1954: Orthographie Universitaire   * 1954: Orthographie Universitaire
   * 1970: Etrerannyezhel (‘interdialectal’)   * 1970: Etrerannyezhel (‘interdialectal’)
  
-Peurunvan remains the most popular ​in use((GutmanA. & AvanzatiB. (2013).//Breton.//The Language Gulper.[[http://​www.languagesgulper.com/​eng/​Breton.html]].)) ((AgerS(n.d.). //Breton (ar brezhoneg)//Omniglot. [[https://​www.omniglot.com/​writing/​breton.htm]].))+A unified language has emerged ​in the 20th century, a development which has been reinforced by the development of bilingual education and by the media.((VallerieM. & BouroullegC. (2019). Breton: ​The Breton ​language in education in France (3rd ed.). Mercator European Research Centre on Multilingualismand Language Learning.)) In 2019, almost all speakers under the age of 50 could read and write the language to some extent.((VallerieM& Bouroulleg, C(2019). Breton: The Breton language in education in France ​(3rd ed.). Mercator European Research Centre on Multilingualismand Language Learning.))
  
 ===== Demographics ===== ===== Demographics =====
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 ====== Education in practice ====== ====== Education in practice ======
  
-14,710 children (corresponding to 2.4% of school children in Brittany) will be learning Breton 2012 and 2013, opposed to 5 children in 1985. Few learners reach a reasonable level of fluency. ((Goalabre, F. (2015). Immersion Education and the Revitalisation of Breton and Gaelic as Community Languages. //Policy and Planning for Endangered Languages//​)) 
  
-Since 1977, there is a bilingual school network, [[http://www.diwankistreberzh.bzh/page/7/|Diwan]], which teaches by language immersion, and teaches Breton only in the first years of education. The Diwan schools do not receive state financial support. ((Vallerie, M. & Bouroulleg, C. //Breton: Breton language in education in France| 3rd Edition// Mercator Research Centre. [[https://​www.mercator-research.eu/​fileadmin/​mercator/​documents/​regional_dossiers/​breton_in_france_3rd.pdf]].))+Since 1977, there is a bilingual school network, [[https://www.diwan.bzh/​|Diwan]],​ which teaches by language immersion, and teaches Breton only in the first years of education. The Diwan schools do not receive state financial support. ((Vallerie, M. & Bouroulleg, C. //Breton: Breton language in education in France| 3rd Edition// Mercator Research Centre. [[https://​www.mercator-research.eu/​fileadmin/​mercator/​documents/​regional_dossiers/​breton_in_france_3rd.pdf]].)) ​In 2021, the Diwan school network has 48 schools, 6 secondary schools (colleges), and 2 upper secondary schools (lycées) and had 4,063 students enrolled at the start of the 2020 school year, around 2/3 at primary level, and 1/3 at secondary level.((Diwan (2021). //Diwan en bref//. Diwan. [[https://​www.diwan.bzh/​fr/​diwan-en-bref]].))  
 + 
 +14,710 children (corresponding to 2.4% of school children in Brittany) learned Breton 2012 and 2013, opposed to 5 children in 1985.((Goalabre,​ F. (2015). Immersion Education and the Revitalisation of Breton and Gaelic as Community Languages. //Policy and Planning for Endangered Languages//​)) 
  
  
languages/breton_in_france.txt · Last modified: 2021/05/27 11:06 by ydwine

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