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languages:breton_in_france [2020/03/24 15:19]
ydwine [Linguistic aspects:]
languages:breton_in_france [2021/05/27 11:06]
ydwine [Mercator's Regional Dossier]
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 ====== Breton in France ====== ====== Breton in France ======
 +
 +
  
 ==== Language designations:​ ==== ==== Language designations:​ ====
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 ==== Language vitality: ==== ==== Language vitality: ====
-^ [[http://​www.unesco.org/​languages-atlas/​|UNESCO]] ^ [[https://​www.ethnologue.com/​language/​bre|Ethnologue]] ^ [[http://​www.endangeredlanguages.com/​lang/​1228|Endangered Languages]] ^ +^ [[http://​www.unesco.org/​languages-atlas/​|UNESCO]] ^ [[https://​www.ethnologue.com/​language/​bre|Ethnologue]] ^ [[http://​www.endangeredlanguages.com/​lang/​1228|Endangered Languages]] ​^ [[https://​glottolog.org/​resource/​languoid/​id/​bret1244|Glottolog]]  ​
-| {{ :​endangerment:​orange.png?​nolink | Severely endangered }} | {{ :​endangerment:​yellow.png?​nolink | In trouble }} | {{ :​endangerment:​green.png?​nolink | At risk}} |+| {{ :​endangerment:​orange.png?​nolink | Severely endangered }} | {{ :​endangerment:​yellow.png?​nolink | In trouble }} | {{ :​endangerment:​green.png?​nolink | At risk}} ​| {{ :​endangerment:​white.png?​nolink | Not endangered, comment "at risk"​}}  ​|
 ==== Linguistic aspects: ===== ==== Linguistic aspects: =====
   * Classification:​ Indo-European → Celtic → Breton   * Classification:​ Indo-European → Celtic → Breton
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 ==== Language standardization:​ ===== ==== Language standardization:​ =====
 +
 +Breton knows several varieties, with Kerneveg, Leoneg, Tregerieg in  the  centre ​ and  north-western ​ part  of  Brittany, and Gwenedeg in  the  southeast.((Vallerie,​ M. & Bouroulleg, C. (2019). Breton: The Breton language in education in France (3rd ed.). Mercator European Research Centre on Multilingualismand Language Learning.))
  
 Breton has known many ortographies,​ and Breton has been written since the 6th Century((Ager,​ S. (n.d.). //Breton (ar brezhoneg)//​. Omniglot. [[https://​www.omniglot.com/​writing/​breton.htm]].)). In the 20th century, several orthographies were produced to try encompass the regional variations an/or to create a universal spelling: ​ Breton has known many ortographies,​ and Breton has been written since the 6th Century((Ager,​ S. (n.d.). //Breton (ar brezhoneg)//​. Omniglot. [[https://​www.omniglot.com/​writing/​breton.htm]].)). In the 20th century, several orthographies were produced to try encompass the regional variations an/or to create a universal spelling: ​
-  * 1941:​Peurunvan('​totally unified'​)/​zedacheg (for digraph zh)/KLTGw (the four variety'​s initials). ​ +  * 1941: Peurunvan('​totally unified'​)/​zedacheg (for digraph zh)/KLTGw (the four variety'​s initials). 
 +    * Peurunvan remains the most popular in use((Gutman,​ A. & Avanzati, B. (2013).//​Breton.//​The Language Gulper.[[http://​www.languagesgulper.com/​eng/​Breton.html]].)) ((Ager, S. (n.d.). //Breton (ar brezhoneg)//​. Omniglot. [[https://​www.omniglot.com/​writing/​breton.htm]].)).
   * 1954: Orthographie Universitaire   * 1954: Orthographie Universitaire
   * 1970: Etrerannyezhel (‘interdialectal’)   * 1970: Etrerannyezhel (‘interdialectal’)
  
-Peurunvan remains the most popular ​in use((GutmanA. & AvanzatiB. (2013).//Breton.//The Language Gulper.[[http://​www.languagesgulper.com/​eng/​Breton.html]].)) ((AgerS(n.d.). //Breton (ar brezhoneg)//Omniglot. [[https://​www.omniglot.com/​writing/​breton.htm]].))+A unified language has emerged ​in the 20th century, a development which has been reinforced by the development of bilingual education and by the media.((VallerieM. & BouroullegC. (2019). Breton: ​The Breton ​language in education in France (3rd ed.). Mercator European Research Centre on Multilingualismand Language Learning.)) In 2019, almost all speakers under the age of 50 could read and write the language to some extent.((VallerieM& Bouroulleg, C(2019). Breton: The Breton language in education in France ​(3rd ed.). Mercator European Research Centre on Multilingualismand Language Learning.))
  
 ===== Demographics ===== ===== Demographics =====
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-===== Educational legislation: =====+===== Legislation on national level: =====
    
   * [[http://​www.axl.cefan.ulaval.ca/​europe/​France-loi_Deixonne-texte-1951.htm|The Loi Deixonne of 1951]] allowed Breton into the schools on a voluntary basis for one hour a week.    * [[http://​www.axl.cefan.ulaval.ca/​europe/​France-loi_Deixonne-texte-1951.htm|The Loi Deixonne of 1951]] allowed Breton into the schools on a voluntary basis for one hour a week. 
   * [[http://​webetab.ac-bordeaux.fr/​primaire/​64/​oloron/​themes/​file/​occitan/​Textes_relatifs_a_lenseignement_des_langues_regionales.pdf|The Circulaire Savary (82-621) of 1982 ]] allowed the teaching of regional languages rom nursery schools to university, inside the school system for a few hours per week, and allowing bilingual programmes.   * [[http://​webetab.ac-bordeaux.fr/​primaire/​64/​oloron/​themes/​file/​occitan/​Textes_relatifs_a_lenseignement_des_langues_regionales.pdf|The Circulaire Savary (82-621) of 1982 ]] allowed the teaching of regional languages rom nursery schools to university, inside the school system for a few hours per week, and allowing bilingual programmes.
 +
 + 
 +On April 8, 2021, the French National Assembly passed a bill //​Protection et promotion des langues régionales//​ (Eng: protection and promotion of regional languages) by 247 votes in favour and 76 against. The approval has been described as '​historic',​ as it opens the door to implement language immersion through the medium of minoritised languages in public schools, as well as to allow for better funding of immersive, community-run private schools.((Protection et promotion des langues régionales (2021). [[https://​www.assemblee-nationale.fr/​dyn/​15/​dossiers/​protection_patrimoniale_langues_regionales]].))((Nationalia (2021, April 8). //France passes “historic” law to allow minoritised language immersion in public schools
 +Better funding for immersive community-run schools expected//. Nationalia. [[https://​www.francebleu.fr/​infos/​societe/​loi-sur-les-langues-regionales-il-faut-voter-en-l-etat-pour-ne-pas-perdre-de-temps-pour-paul-molac-1617868229'​]].))((Lagain,​ A., Louis, N., France Bleu, France Bleu Breizh Izel (2021, April 8). //Loi sur les langues régionales : la proposition est adoptée par l'​Assemblée nationale//​.[[https://​www.francebleu.fr/​infos/​societe/​loi-sur-les-langues-regionales-il-faut-voter-en-l-etat-pour-ne-pas-perdre-de-temps-pour-paul-molac-1617868229]].))
 +
 +On May 21, 2021, the Constitutional Council of France concluded that the law for the protection and promotion of regional languages ​​as partially unconstitutional. One of the two articles deemed inconstitutioanl,​ article 4, concerns immersive education. The report of the Constitutional Council states: "By providing that the teaching of a regional language can take the form of immersive teaching, article 4 of the referred law disregards article 2 of the Constitution. It is therefore contrary to the Constitution."​((Louis,​ N., France Bleu Breizh Izel, France Bleu Armorique, France Bleu, France Bleu Alsace, France Bleu Elsass, France Bleu Pays Basque, France Bleu Roussillon, France Bleu RCFM, France Bleu Périgord (2021, May 21).//La loi sur les langues régionales censurée en partie par le Conseil Constitutionnel//​. France Bleu. [[https://​www.francebleu.fr/​infos/​politique/​la-loi-sur-les-langues-regionales-censuree-en-partie-par-le-conseil-constitutionnel-1621588548?​xtmc=protection%20et%20la%20promotion%20des%20langues%20r%C3%A9gionales&​xtnp=1&​xtcr=5]].)) Article 2 of the Constitution states that French is the language of the Republic. The immersive bilingual Diwan school network has issued a statement shortly after: "From now on, we are in the legal, financial and operational unknown. However, with the ambiguity to our advantage, we will continue our mission as every day for 44 years, with determination."​ ((Diwan (2021, May 25). //Face à l'​incompréhension,​ montrons notre force et notre détermination !
 +A l'​attention des élèves, parents, bénévoles,​ enseignant.e.s et personnels de Diwan
 +//. Diwan. [[https://​www.diwan.bzh/​fr/​face-a-notre-incomprehension]].))
 +
 +
 +
  
  
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 ====== Education in practice ====== ====== Education in practice ======
  
-14,710 children (corresponding to 2.4% of school children in Brittany) will be learning Breton 2012 and 2013, opposed to 5 children in 1985. Few learners reach a reasonable level of fluency. ((Goalabre, F. (2015). Immersion Education and the Revitalisation of Breton and Gaelic as Community Languages. //Policy and Planning for Endangered Languages//​)) 
  
-Since 1977, there is a bilingual school network, [[http://www.diwankistreberzh.bzh/page/7/|Diwan]], which teaches by language immersion, and teaches Breton only in the first years of education. The Diwan schools do not receive state financial support. ((Vallerie, M. & Bouroulleg, C. //Breton: Breton language in education in France| 3rd Edition// Mercator Research Centre. [[https://​www.mercator-research.eu/​fileadmin/​mercator/​documents/​regional_dossiers/​breton_in_france_3rd.pdf]].))+Since 1977, there is a bilingual school network, [[https://www.diwan.bzh/​|Diwan]],​ which teaches by language immersion, and teaches Breton only in the first years of education. The Diwan schools do not receive state financial support. ((Vallerie, M. & Bouroulleg, C. //Breton: Breton language in education in France| 3rd Edition// Mercator Research Centre. [[https://​www.mercator-research.eu/​fileadmin/​mercator/​documents/​regional_dossiers/​breton_in_france_3rd.pdf]].)) ​In 2021, the Diwan school network has 48 schools, 6 secondary schools (colleges), and 2 upper secondary schools (lycées) and had 4,063 students enrolled at the start of the 2020 school year, around 2/3 at primary level, and 1/3 at secondary level.((Diwan (2021). //Diwan en bref//. Diwan. [[https://​www.diwan.bzh/​fr/​diwan-en-bref]].))  
 + 
 +14,710 children (corresponding to 2.4% of school children in Brittany) learned Breton 2012 and 2013, opposed to 5 children in 1985.((Goalabre,​ F. (2015). Immersion Education and the Revitalisation of Breton and Gaelic as Community Languages. //Policy and Planning for Endangered Languages//​)) 
  
  
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 ====== Mercator'​s Regional Dossier: ====== ====== Mercator'​s Regional Dossier: ======
  
-[[http://​www.mercator-research.eu/​fileadmin/​mercator/​dossiers_pdf/aragonese_in_spain.pdf|{{:​images:​dossier.png?​nolink|}}]][[https://​www.mercator-research.eu/​fileadmin/​mercator/​documents/​regional_dossiers/​breton_in_france_3rd.pdf|Read more]] about Breton language education in Mercator'​s Regional Dossier (2019).+[[https://​www.mercator-research.eu/​fileadmin/​mercator/​documents/regional_dossiers/​breton_in_france_3rd.pdf|{{:​images:​dossier.png?​nolink|}}]][[https://​www.mercator-research.eu/​fileadmin/​mercator/​documents/​regional_dossiers/​breton_in_france_3rd.pdf|Read more]] about Breton language education in Mercator'​s Regional Dossier (2019).
languages/breton_in_france.txt · Last modified: 2021/05/27 11:06 by ydwine

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