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languages:aromanian_in_the_balkans [2018/04/18 13:28]
annika_klein [Legislation of language education]
languages:aromanian_in_the_balkans [2020/09/07 13:05] (current)
ydwine [Language vitality according to:]
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 ==== Language vitality according to: ==== ==== Language vitality according to: ====
-^ [[http://​​languages-atlas/​|UNESCO]] ​             ^ [[https://​​language/fry/​|Ethnologue]] ​ ^ [[http://​​lang/10425|Endangered Languages]] ​ ^ +^ [[http://​​languages-atlas/​|UNESCO]] ​             ^ [[https://​​language/​|Ethnologue]] ​ ^ [[http://​​|Endangered Languages]]  ^  [[https://​​resource/​languoid/​id/​arom1237|Glottolog]]  ^ 
-| {{ :​endangerment:​yellow.png?​nolink ​}} (Definitely endangered ​| ​4, 5, 6a, 6b (depending on country) ​                     ​| At riskVulnerableThreatened ​(depending on source)                   |+ {{ :​endangerment:​yellow.png?​nolink|Definitely endangered}}  |{{ :​endangerment:​purple.png?​nolink|Educational}} {{ :​endangerment:​blue.png?​nolink|Developing}} {{ :​endangerment:​green.png?​nolink|Vigourous}} {{ :​endangerment:​green.png?​nolink|Threatened }}    |{{ :​endangerment:​green.png?​nolink|At risk}} {{ :​endangerment:​yellow.png?​nolink|Vulnerable}} {{ :​endangerment:​orange.png?​nolink|Threatened}}    | {{ :​endangerment:​orange.png?​nolink | shifting}} ​ |  
 +|  | depending on country ​ |  ​depending on source ​ ​|  ​|
 ==== Linguistic aspects: ===== ==== Linguistic aspects: =====
   * Classification:​ Indo-European → Italic → Romance → Eastern Romance. For more information,​ see [[http://​​resource/​languoid/​id/​arom1237|arom1237]] at [[http://​​|Glottolog]]   * Classification:​ Indo-European → Italic → Romance → Eastern Romance. For more information,​ see [[http://​​resource/​languoid/​id/​arom1237|arom1237]] at [[http://​​|Glottolog]]
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 ===== Legislation of language education ===== ===== Legislation of language education =====
-Please describe legislation concerning education of the language. Distinguish between different levels of legislation. For instance, legislation concerning Aragonese language education in Aragon (Spain) is affected by:  
-  * The [[general_information:​glossary_of_terms|European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages]],​ 
-  * Spanish legislation,​ 
-  * Legislation of the Autonomous Community of Aragon. 
-Questions that may be discussed in this section: 
-  * Is the language protected by the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages? 
-  * Does the law allow for the language to be taught in school? 
-  * Does the law allow for the language to be used as medium of instruction in school? 
-  * Does the law state that teaching the language or using it as medium of instruction is compulsory? 
-Feel free to add additional points, not included in the list above. 
 **Bulgaria** **Bulgaria**
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 ===== Institutional support for education of the language: ===== ===== Institutional support for education of the language: =====
-If information is available, please discuss whether: +**Greece**
- +
-  ​there are learning materials being developed,​ +
-  ​these materials are sufficient and of good quality, +
-  ​these materials are commissioned or their development subsidized by the regional or national government,​ +
- +
-  ​there is training available for language teachers, +
-  * there are sufficient teachers and if they are competent,​ +
-  * there is a teacher'​s union, or an institution where teachers can get advice or additional training, +
-  * teacher training is subsidized by the regional or national government,+
-  * language ​education ​is promoted by an institution,​ +There is no institutional support for education of the language.
-  * promotion ​of language education is subsidized by the government,​ +
- +
-  * the quality of language ​education is inspected and stimulated. +
- +
-Feel free to add additional points, not included in the list above, and to structure your information using chapter headings, e.g.:+
 ==== Language learning materials: ==== ==== Language learning materials: ====
 +There are very few learning materials developed by the Aromanian Associations. ​
 ===== Education presence ===== ===== Education presence =====
-To what extent is language education available in the area under scrutiny: 
-  * Is the language being taught in- or outside of school? 
-  * If the language is taught during school hours, ​ 
-      * in which grades is it being taught? 
-      * for how many hours per week? 
-      * to how many children / what percentage of the population? 
-      * are language skills being evaluated in any way? 
-      * what level of competence do students reach? 
-  * Is the language used as medium of instruction in school? 
-  * What school systems with respect to multilingualism are there (bilingual, trilingual)?​ 
-  * Are there courses available for adults? 
-  * Is the language taught or studied at university level? 
-Can you say anything about to what extent education of the language helps to preserve it: 
-  * Do students use the language outside of school? 
-  * Does the fact that the language is being taught in school add to its prestige, and the speakers'​ self esteem? 
-Feel free to add additional points, not included in the list above, and to structure your information using chapter headings. 
 **Bulgaria** **Bulgaria**
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   * The introduction of Aromanian as a mother tongue is very difficult (not enough participants,​ no official school programmes, no teachers)   * The introduction of Aromanian as a mother tongue is very difficult (not enough participants,​ no official school programmes, no teachers)
   * Aromanian is not taught at Bulgarian Universities.   * Aromanian is not taught at Bulgarian Universities.
 +  * The language is not taught in schools. ​
 +  * Some Aromanian Associations are actually teaching the language. Each association tries to teach the local variety of its region. Teachers are usually native speakers of the Aromanian language without scientific background in the teaching process and the creation of educational material and teaching corpus. ​
 +  - Aromanian Associations teaching Aromanian language in Greece:
 +Aromanian Association of Athens. Teaching from 2016 – now. Class: twice per month, target group: adults. (30 students). Each lesson consists of three parts: language teaching, song teaching (with emphasis on lyrics as a language teaching component) and dance. The teaching curriculum is in the 2 major dialects Pindean and Farsherot. https://​​groups/​268915336877997/​
 +  - Aromanian Association of Veria. Teaching from 1990 – now. Almost 3 groups per week. Classes: once per week, target group: adults & children (separate groups). (30 students per group) http://​​
 +  - Aromanian Association of Anilio – Metsovo. Teaching from 2012 – now. Class: once per week, 2 groups, target group: children. (almost 20 students per group)
 +  - Aromanian Association of Aetomilitsa. Teaching from 2015 – now: In Thessaloniki city. Class: twice per week, target group: adults. (25 students) ​ http://​​
 +  - Aromanian Association (Aromanians from Perivoli village) of Magnisia. In Velestion city. Teaching from 2015 – now. Class: once per week, target group: mostly children (30 students) https://​​groups/​97418088367/​
 +  - Aromanian Association of Distrato. From 2013 – now. In Konitsa city. Class: once per week. Target group: adults. (20 students)  ​
 +  - Aromanian Association of Krania Aspropotamou. From 2014 – now. In Trikala city Class: once per week. Target group: adults. (20 students). Summer school for children in Krania village (20 students). ​  
 +  * The language is not used as medium of instruction.
 +  * There is no school system with respect to multilingualism.
 +  * Aromanian associations depend on demand; they offer courses for both children and adults.
 +  * The language cannot be studied at university level.
 +  * Education helps to preserve the Aromanian language. The majority of Aromanians in Greece have no opportunity to interact in Aromanian. The number of children exposed to the language is decreasing. Some of the reasons are: a) it is spoken mainly by elder people in the villages; b) young people living in the big cities do not use it to communicate on their daily activities; c) very often Greek is the main language of communication between the members of Aromanian families. Therefore, the education of the language has a huge contribution to language preservation and revitalization. It creates an environment where the language is spoken.  ​
 +  * Outside of school the language is only spoken in Aromanian villages and small cities and mostly between the members of the family and during the communication with elderly people. ​
 +__Sutsată a Armîńilor di Athina, (Society of Aromanians of Athens)__  ​
 +  * The //Society of Aromanians of Athens// (Sutsată a Armîńilor di Athina) is an Aromanian association based in Athens that promotes the revitalisation of both Aromanian language and culture. It was set up in the end of 2015 by a small core group of Arοmanians living in the wider area of the Greek capital.
 +  * The Society offers a meeting and reference place for those interested in promoting the Αrοmanian culture and language with scientific criteria and strengthening the relations between its members from all over Greece. This is unique and unprecedented given that most of the existing Aromanian associations target a local group from a specific geographic area or village which speaks a common linguistic dialect or variety of Αromanian language.
 +  * The //Society of Aromanians of Athens//, on the contrary, seeks, to set new, but solid, foundations to teach this endangered language, redefining Aromanian identity in a constantly changing socioeconomic environment and integrating its cultural heritage in the modern world. This is succeeded through recreational activities that encompass both modern/​contemporary features and the revival of the traditional customs.
 +  * During the first half of 2016, the emphasis was placed on lectures, on the writing system of the Aromanian language and its varieties, the urbanization of the Aromanians and the role of Aromanian identity during the past decades, contemporary Aromanian poetry, as well as the organisation of music concerts and parties.
 +  * Since the fall of 2016, Aromanian language courses have been regularly organised under the responsibility of a group of language teachers and linguists. Furthermore,​ the Society offers dance and song classes organized by professionals.
 +  * The Society became a legal entity in August 2017. Membership has grown rapidly, and it now lists at least 50 regular members and many friends, mostly young people.
 +  * Due to the diverse background of its participants,​ the Society is enjoying a rich variety of Aromanian cultural expressions and Aromanian dialects. As will be analysed further below, this diversity creates one of the main challenges in the teaching process. ​
 +  * As far as scientific activities are concerned, the Society has organised or is going to organise the following events in collaboration with academic departments and similar Aromanian associations from all over Greece: ​
 +  - a special workshop was conducted in December 2017 in Veroia, city in northern Greece on the quest of a standard Aromanian language writing system, a common teaching method and the role of technology in transcribing and preserving the language, its dialects and varietie; ​
 +  - an academic conference on Aromanian identity, culture and language with the participation of academics and researchers from Greece and abroad aiming at the publishing of the proceedings;​
 +  - in spring 2018: lectures about historical and ethnological issues.
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   * http://​​invata-online (project financed by EEA grants)   * http://​​invata-online (project financed by EEA grants)
 +  * http://​​images/​pdf/​1996.Mathimata-koutsovlahikis.pdf
 Online dictionary: ​ Online dictionary: ​
   * http://​​   * http://​​
 +  * http://​​online/​aromanian.php
 +  * http://​​dictionary/​aromanian.php
 +  * http://​​dict/​armaneasca/​
 +  * https://​​greek-vlach-dictionary
 +  * https://​​dictionary
 Some basics: Some basics:
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   * http://​​blog/​cultura-armanasca/​cursuri-ti-scriari/​lectsiili-2-shi-3/​   * http://​​blog/​cultura-armanasca/​cursuri-ti-scriari/​lectsiili-2-shi-3/​
   * http://​​blog/​cultura-armanasca/​cursuri-ti-scriari/​lectsiili-10-shi-11/​   * http://​​blog/​cultura-armanasca/​cursuri-ti-scriari/​lectsiili-10-shi-11/​
 +  * https://​​
languages/aromanian_in_the_balkans.1524050895.txt.gz · Last modified: 2018/04/18 13:28 by annika_klein

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