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languages:aleut_in_russia_and_canada [2020/02/26 12:59]
ydwine [Online learning resources]
languages:aleut_in_russia_and_canada [2020/09/07 12:08] (current)
ydwine [Language vitality according to:]
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 ==== Language designations:​ ==== ==== Language designations:​ ====
-  * In the language itself: //Unangam Tunuu// ((Alaska Native Languages. //Unangam Tunuu / Aleut//​. ​<http://​www.uaf.edu/​anlc/​languages/​al/>)).+  * In the language itself: //Unangam Tunuu// ((Alaska Native Languages. //Unangam Tunuu / Aleut//​. ​Retrieved from [[https://​www.uaf.edu/​anlc/​languages/​aleut.php]])).
   * [[general_information:​glossary_of_terms#​ISO 639-3|ISO 639-3]] Code sets: 639-2 and 639-3.   * [[general_information:​glossary_of_terms#​ISO 639-3|ISO 639-3]] Code sets: 639-2 and 639-3.
  
 ==== Language vitality according to: ==== ==== Language vitality according to: ====
-^ [[http://​www.unesco.org/​languages-atlas/​|UNESCO]] ​ ^ [[https://​www.ethnologue.com/​language/​ale/​|Ethnologue]] ​ ^ [[http://​www.endangeredlanguages.com/​lang/​671|Endangered Languages]] ​ ^ +^ [[http://​www.unesco.org/​languages-atlas/​|UNESCO]] ​ ^ [[https://​www.ethnologue.com/​language/​ale/​|Ethnologue]] ​ ^ [[http://​www.endangeredlanguages.com/​lang/​671|Endangered Languages]]  ​^ [[https://​glottolog.org/​| Glottolog]] ​
-| {{ :​endangerment:​red.png?​nolink | Critically endangered}}|{{ :​endangerment:​black.png?​nolink | Extinct}}| {{ :​endangerment:​red.png?​nolink | verely ​Endangered}} ​                                                    ​|+| {{ :​endangerment:​red.png?​nolink | Critically endangered}}|{{ :​endangerment:​black.png?​nolink | Extinct}}| {{ :​endangerment:​red.png?​nolink | severely ​Endangered}} ​  | {{ :​endangerment:​orange.png?​nolink | shifting ​ }}                                                  ​|
  
 ==== Linguistic aspects: ===== ==== Linguistic aspects: =====
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   * Script: Cyrillic/​Latin   * Script: Cyrillic/​Latin
 ==== Language standardisation ==== ==== Language standardisation ====
-The standardised orthography (was initially) the Cyrillic alphabet ((Endangered Language Projects)) and is linked to the Russian orthodox church and the Russian colonisation of Alaska.+The standardised orthography (was initially) the Cyrillic alphabet ((Endangered Language Projects. //Aleut//. (n.d.). Retrieved from [[http://​www.endangeredlanguages.com/​lang/​671]])) and is linked to the Russian orthodox church and the Russian colonisation of Alaska.
 Nowadays the Latin alphabet is also used by the communities. Nowadays the Latin alphabet is also used by the communities.
  
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 ==== Language Area ==== ==== Language Area ====
  
-The map ((Eskimo-Aleut Languages ​at //The Language Gulper// <http://​www.languagesgulper.com/​eng/​Eskimo.html>)) shows the Eskimo-Aleut languages with Aleut in red.+The map ((Gutman, A. and B. Avanzati. //Eskimo-Aleut Languages// ​(2013). ​The Language Gulper. Retrieved from [[http://​www.languagesgulper.com/​eng/​Eskimo.html]])) shows the Eskimo-Aleut languages with Aleut in red.
  
 Aleut is spoken in the Aleutian Islands, the Pribilof Islands, and the Alaska Peninsula west of Stepovak Aleut is spoken in the Aleutian Islands, the Pribilof Islands, and the Alaska Peninsula west of Stepovak
-Bay with an ethnic population of 2.200 people ((Endangered Language Projects)). Dialects: Attu (Western), Atka (Eastern), Unalaska (Eastern).+Bay with an ethnic population of 2.200 people ((Endangered Language Projects. //Aleut//. (n.d.). Retrieved from [[http://​www.endangeredlanguages.com/​lang/​671]])). Dialects: Attu (Western), Atka (Eastern), Unalaska (Eastern).
  
 ==== Speaker numbers ==== ==== Speaker numbers ====
-The numbers of speakers are estimated between 150-160 worldwide ((Endangered Language Projects)).+The numbers of speakers are estimated between 150-160 worldwide ((Endangered Language Projects. //Aleut//. (n.d.). Retrieved from [[http://​www.endangeredlanguages.com/​lang/​671]])).
  
  
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 Aleut is protected by the [[http://​www.un.org/​esa/​socdev/​unpfii/​documents/​DRIPS_en.pdf|UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples]]. Aleut is protected by the [[http://​www.un.org/​esa/​socdev/​unpfii/​documents/​DRIPS_en.pdf|UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples]].
-In the state of Alaska the right on education in indigenous culture and language is granted by the state law (citation needed). In 1972, the Alaska Bilingual Education Law was enacted and enabled bilingual education; today the demand for this form of education is mainly in the languages Central Yu'pik and Inupiaq ((http://​www.uaf.edu/​anlc/​classes/​)). ​+In the state of Alaska the right on education in indigenous culture and language is granted by the state law (citation needed). In 1972, the Alaska Bilingual Education Law was enacted and enabled bilingual education; today the demand for this form of education is mainly in the languages Central Yu'pik and Inupiaq ((Alaska Native Languages Center. //Courses Offered// (2019). Retrieved from [[http://​www.uaf.edu/​anlc/​classes/​]].)). 
 In Russia however Aleut education faces some resistance (citation needed), for further details, see section [[general_information:​russian_legislation|Russian legislation concerning minority languages]] on the Mercator Wiki page. In Russia however Aleut education faces some resistance (citation needed), for further details, see section [[general_information:​russian_legislation|Russian legislation concerning minority languages]] on the Mercator Wiki page.
  
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 ==== Language learning materials: ==== ==== Language learning materials: ====
  
-  * Several learning materials are available on the [[http://www.uaf.edu/​anlc/​publications/​detail/​index.xml?​language=AL|Alaska Native Language Center]], such an Aleut Grammar (Alaska Native Language Center Research Paper no. 10) by Bergsland, Knut, and Aleut Dictionary (Unangam Tunudgusii) by Bergsland, Knut, and "How the Atkans Talk" (Niigugis Mataliin Tununxtazangis):​ CD and paper by Berge, Anna and Dirks, Moses.+  * Several learning materials are available on the [[https://​uaf.edu/​anlc/​|Alaska Native Language Center]], such as: 
 +    * [[https://​archive.org/​details/​rosettaproject_ale_morsyn-2/​page/​n6/​mode/​2up|Aleut Grammar]] (Alaska Native Language Center Research Paper no. 10) by Bergsland, Knut 
 +    * [[https://​epay.alaska.edu/​C21563_ustores/​web/​product_detail.jsp?​PRODUCTID=5550&​SINGLESTORE=true|Aleut Dictionary]] (Unangam Tunudgusii) by Bergsland, Knut. //paywall installed//​ 
 +    * [[https://​epay.alaska.edu/​C21563_ustores/​web/​product_detail.jsp?​PRODUCTID=5547&​SINGLESTORE=true|How the Atkans Talk"]] (Niigugis Mataliin Tununxtazangis). //paywall installed//​ 
 +    * [[https://​epay.alaska.edu/​C21563_ustores/​web/​product_detail.jsp?​PRODUCTID=5548&​SINGLESTORE=true|CD and paper]] by Berge, Anna and Dirks, Moses. ​//paywall installed//​ 
 + 
 +==Modified: 26-02-2020==
 ===== Education presence ===== ===== Education presence =====
 It is unclear whether the language is being taught in schools at all. In Anchorage three schools are members of the [[http://​www.aleutregion.org/​|Aleutian School District]], which offers a standard for the curriculum including education of Alaskan cultural heritage. Aleut language education, however, is not a part of the standard. It is unclear whether the language is being taught in schools at all. In Anchorage three schools are members of the [[http://​www.aleutregion.org/​|Aleutian School District]], which offers a standard for the curriculum including education of Alaskan cultural heritage. Aleut language education, however, is not a part of the standard.
  
-Aleutian school district states, among other things that students should have read "a variety of literature within each of the cultural categories Alaska Native/​American Indian" ​at level four. The website offers Unangax Dance photographs taken at [[http://​www.aleutregion.org/​unangax_dance|The Festival of Native Arts]]. Part of the curriculum is //Alaskan Studies//, in which students learn to identify languages of Alaska and cultural attributes such as dance, music, hunting, world views and beliefs. Native American bodies on legislation,​ human rights and recognition are also a separate element of the subject Alaskan Studies. Additionally,​ Alaskan history classes include the Russian period and the work of various missionaries. Awareness on resources and the effects of altering governments are also discussed. ​+Aleutian school district states, among other things that students should have read "a variety of literature within each of the cultural categories" including ​Alaska Native/​American Indian at level three (([[https://​echalk-slate-prod.s3.amazonaws.com/​private/​schools/​2940/​resources/​e140fc3c-04a6-4530-b349-dba0a64e6f40?​AWSAccessKeyId=AKIAJSZKIBPXGFLSZTYQ&​Expires=1880569215&​response-cache-control=private%2C%20max-age%3D31536000&​response-content-disposition=%3Bfilename%3D%22Summary%2520of%2520Language%2520Arts%2520Standards%284%29.pdf%22&​response-content-type=application%2Fpdf&​Signature=9cnM06C0Non7guz6T0vp6yNRK%2F8%3D]].)) The website offers Unangax Dance photographs taken at [[http://​www.aleutregion.org/​unangax_dance|The Festival of Native Arts]])). Part of the curriculum is //Alaskan Studies//, in which students learn to identify languages of Alaska and cultural attributes such as dance, music, hunting, world views and beliefs. Native American bodies on legislation,​ human rights and recognition are also a separate element of the subject Alaskan Studies. Additionally,​ Alaskan history classes include the Russian period and the work of various missionaries. Awareness on resources and the effects of altering governments are also discussed. ​
  
 Cultural education is transmitted too through sports, such as baseball, Aleut style, which differs from the American and Russian baseball form and displays Aleut norms and values(( Csoba DeHass, M., Droulias, A. (2010).//​Aleut baseball: Cultural creation and innovation through a sporting event//, Études/​Inuit/​Studies , vol. 34, n° 2, p. 21-37)). ​   Cultural education is transmitted too through sports, such as baseball, Aleut style, which differs from the American and Russian baseball form and displays Aleut norms and values(( Csoba DeHass, M., Droulias, A. (2010).//​Aleut baseball: Cultural creation and innovation through a sporting event//, Études/​Inuit/​Studies , vol. 34, n° 2, p. 21-37)). ​  
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 There are no outside-class language courses available for students or adults. There are no outside-class language courses available for students or adults.
 ==== University level ==== ==== University level ====
-Aleut is studied and taught as part of the minor "​Alaska Native Languages"​ at Fairbanks university ((http://​catalog.uaf.edu/​courses/​anl/​)). At a scientific level, Aleut is being preserved and even promoted ((http://​www.uaf.edu/​anlc/languages/​al/)).+Aleut is studied and taught as part of the minor "​Alaska Native Languages"​ at Fairbanks university ((University of Alaska Fairbanks. //Alaska Native Languages.//​ (n.d.). ​ Retrieved from [[http://​catalog.uaf.edu/​courses/​anl/​]].)). At a scientific level, Aleut is being preserved and even promoted ((University of Alaska Fairbanks. //Alaska Native Language Archive.// (n.d.). Retrieved from [[https://​www.uaf.edu/​anla/about/]].)).
   ​   ​
 ===== Online learning resources ===== ===== Online learning resources =====
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-====== Mercator'​s Regional Dossier: ====== +
-Not available+
languages/aleut_in_russia_and_canada.1582718383.txt.gz · Last modified: 2020/02/26 12:59 by ydwine

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