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general_information:russian_legislation [2020/03/18 14:55]
ydwine [Short history]
general_information:russian_legislation [2020/03/18 15:10] (current)
ydwine [Short history]
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 ==== Short history ==== ==== Short history ====
  
-During the Tsarist period (1721-1917),​ despite a level of autonomy, conditions for minority languages were difficult and some faced extreme restrictions. Revolutionaries had different ideas on minorities however before and after the Russian Revolution (1917-1923) the USSR (1922-1991),​ despite having a centralized governance, implemented the revolutionary ideas of more autonomy and right to education in own languages for certain minorities. In contradiction of these supported nation-building processes, other minorities were forced to relocate and be significantly weakened or eliminated as group before ​and during ​the WWII ((Frank. M. J. (2017). A Clean Sweep The Grand Alliance and Population Transfer 1941-5. In: //Making Minorities History: Population Transfer in Twentieth-century Europe//. Oxford University Press (pp. 227-265)). After WWII, the emphasis on Russian continued and minority languages became subjects rather than languages of instruction. Afterwards, the ideal of united Soviet people with a common language was dominant, and Russian became the standard language of instruction,​ with a decrease from 47 languages of instruction in 1960 to 17 languages in 1982. In the last decade of the USSR, ethnic autonomies sought more or full sovereignity (parade of sovereignties),​ and after the fall of the USSR, laws on language were often the first to be drawn up by such autonomies. The emphasis on language after the USSR also shows in the Law on the Languages of the Peoples of the Russian Federation (1991) and the Constitution of the Russian Federation of 1993. \\ +During the Tsarist period (1721-1917),​ despite a level of autonomy, conditions for minority languages were difficult and some faced extreme restrictions. Revolutionaries had different ideas on minorities however before and after the Russian Revolution (1917-1923) the USSR (1922-1991),​ despite having a centralized governance, implemented the revolutionary ideas of more autonomy and right to education in own languages for certain minorities. In contradiction of these supported nation-building processes, other minorities were forced to relocate ​before and during the WWII, and became ​significantly weakened or eliminated as a people ((Chetryrova,​ L.(2001). Educational Policy Towards Minorities in Russia: History ​and Modernity: ​the case of the Kalmyk Education. In: //Ethnicity and Race: Creating Educational Opportunities Around the Globe¬†
 +International Advances in Education: Global Initiatives for Equity and Social Justice//. Brown,E. L., and Gibbons, P. E. (Ed.). Information Age Publishing (pp. 3-25).)) ​((Frank. M. J. (2017). A Clean Sweep The Grand Alliance and Population Transfer 1941-5. In: //Making Minorities History: Population Transfer in Twentieth-century Europe//. Oxford University Press (pp. 227-265)). After WWII, the emphasis on Russian continued and minority languages became subjects rather than languages of instruction. Afterwards, the ideal of united Soviet people with a common language was dominant, and Russian became the standard language of instruction,​ with a decrease from 47 languages of instruction in 1960 to 17 languages in 1982. In the last decade of the USSR, ethnic autonomies sought more or full sovereignity (parade of sovereignties),​ and after the fall of the USSR, laws on language were often the first to be drawn up by such autonomies. The emphasis on language after the USSR also shows in the Law on the Languages of the Peoples of the Russian Federation (1991) and the Constitution of the Russian Federation of 1993. \\ 
 <sub> // Minority Language Rights in the Russian Federation: The End of a Long Tradition?//​ ((Bowring, B. (2018). //Minority Language Rights in the Russian Federation: The End of a Long Tradition?//​ Palgrave. Retrieved from [[https://​www.researchgate.net/​publication /​325625922_Minority_Language_Rights_in_the_Russian_Federation_The_End_of_a_Long_Tradition]].)). ​ </​sub> ​ <sub> // Minority Language Rights in the Russian Federation: The End of a Long Tradition?//​ ((Bowring, B. (2018). //Minority Language Rights in the Russian Federation: The End of a Long Tradition?//​ Palgrave. Retrieved from [[https://​www.researchgate.net/​publication /​325625922_Minority_Language_Rights_in_the_Russian_Federation_The_End_of_a_Long_Tradition]].)). ​ </​sub> ​
  
general_information/russian_legislation.1584539707.txt.gz · Last modified: 2020/03/18 14:55 by ydwine

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